Evolution Chapter Outlines (p.51-63) Read the “Central Case Study” and summarize in a couple of sentences. (It’s about the Golden Toads ) EVOLUTION AS THE WELLSPRING OF EARTH’S BIODIVERSITY 1. Define species. 2. Define population. 3. What has molded our planet’s species and populations? 4. The changes of biological evolution can lead to changes in genes that can lead to modifications in… a. b. c. 5. Define natural selection. 6. By looking at Figure 3.1, which area has our planet’s greatest biodiversity? Natural Selection shapes organisms and diversity 1. Fill in the table below using Table 3.1 The Logic of Natural Selection Therefore, 2. Define adaptation. Natural selection acts on genetic variation 1. What is the name of the process that gives rise to genetic variations? 2. By looking at Figure 3.2, draw and explain the 3 types of natural selection and what is happening to the snails shells in each situation. a. Stabilizing b. Directional c. Disruptive Evidence of natural selection is all around us 1. Describe artificial selection. Evolution generates biological diversity 1. What are the 3 levels of biodiversity? a. b. c. 2. How many species have been named at this point? 3. Give examples of how other areas other than the rainforest are abundant in biodiversity. Speciation produces new types of organisms 1. What is the main mode of speciation and explain? (Use Figure 3.5 to help explain) Populations can be separated in many ways 1. Give 4 ways in which allopatric speciation can occur. a. b. c. d. 2. Define sympatric speciation. The fossil record teaches us about life’s long history 1. How are fossils formed? 2. How old is Earth? 3. Give 4 things that the fossil record shows u. a. b. c. d. Speciation and extinction together determine Earth’s biodiversity 1. What generates Earth’s biodiversity? 2. What is the biggest problem that is bringing on species extinction? 3. Define background extinction rate. 4. Define mass extinction. 5. How long ago did the best-known mass extinction occur and what did it involve? 6. How many mass extinctions have there been and what is different about the upcoming 6th mass extinction compared to the rest? Niche and specialization are key concepts in ecology 1. Define an organism’s niche. 2. What 4 factors does an organism’s niche include? a. b. c. d. 3. Explain the difference between a niche specialist and a niche generalist. Which one is more vulnerable to extinction when there is an environmental change?