ELEMENT REALIZATION TYPES *Sentence elements can be realized by linguistic features of very different kinds. The VERB element is always a VERB PHRASE, either finite (showing tense, mood, aspect) and non-finite (not showing tense or mood, but still capable of showing aspect). Consider the following three types of non-finite verb phrase functioning as the V element in the non-finite clause: Mary wanted to be(v) a student (c) at that university (A) (o) Carefully (A) searching (v) the room (o), (A) John found a ring.(o) Made(v) the chairman(c) every year(A),(A) he was very busy Whether finite or non-finite, the verb phrase can consist of one word or of more than one word, in which case the phrase consists of a ‘head verb’ preceded by one or more ‘auxiliary verbs’, as in the following examples (the first 3 finite, the last non-finite): EG. Adriana had given Julio an apple. She may be growing happier. Oscar had been challenged rudely, and having been challenged he was angry. The SUBJECT of a sentence may be a clause as in: That she answered the question correctly pleased him. S V O but it is usually a ‘noun phrase’, it may be a simple form (a pronoun) as ‘they’ or a proper noun such as ‘Franz’. But a noun phrase may be rather long and complex having a noun as head, preceded and followed by other words. It is by no means uncommon to find such items in a noun phrase: The new gas stove in the kitchen which I bought last month has a very S V efficient oven. O Subject complements, direct objects and object complements may be realizad by the same range of structures as subjects: He was the chairman; He saw the chairman; They made him the chairman. But subject and object complements have the additional possibility of being realized by adjective phrases (having an adjective as head), as in: happy She made Daniel much happier Indirect objects have chiefly noun phrases as their realizations, as in: Dennis had given the girl a hug Unlike direct objects and subjects they cannot be realizad by that- clauses. COMPLEMENTS Express a meaning which adds to that of another clause element, either the subject (subject complement) or the object (object complement). A subject complement usually follows the subject and verb. The verb is most often a form of be, but it may also be one of a few other verbs that are able to link complements to their subjects in meaning. These are called copular (linking) verbs. Viridiana is a doctor. The bull became angry. (i.e. It was angry) The song sounds lovely. (i.e. It is lovely) Dennis turned 19 last week. (i.e. He was 19) An object complement usually follows the direct object, and its meaning relates to that element. The basic identity between them is shown in paréntesis. They elected Calderon president. (i.e. He is president) That made me angry. (i.e. I was angry) They call him Dr Love. (i.e. He is Dr Love) Complements can be noun phrases (including single nouns), adjective phrases (including single adjectives), pronouns, or certain kinds of subordinate clause. Carmen Aristegui is a good journalist. They became husband and wife. Michelle is very happy. The car’s ready. That’s it. Where’s that? That’s what I call music!