*Sentence elements can be realized by linguistic features of very different
The VERB element is always a VERB PHRASE, either finite (showing
tense, mood, aspect) and non-finite (not showing tense or mood, but still
capable of showing aspect).
Consider the following three types of non-finite verb phrase functioning as
the V element in the non-finite clause:
Mary wanted to be(v) a student (c) at that university (A) (o)
Carefully (A) searching (v) the room (o), (A) John found a ring.(o)
Made(v) the chairman(c) every year(A),(A) he was very busy
Whether finite or non-finite, the verb phrase can consist of one word or of
more than one word, in which case the phrase consists of a ‘head verb’
preceded by one or more ‘auxiliary verbs’, as in the following examples
(the first 3 finite, the last non-finite):
Adriana had given Julio an apple.
She may be growing happier.
Oscar had been challenged rudely, and having been challenged he was
The SUBJECT of a sentence may be a clause as in:
That she answered the question correctly pleased him.
but it is usually a ‘noun phrase’, it may be a simple form (a pronoun) as
‘they’ or a proper noun such as ‘Franz’. But a noun phrase may be rather
long and complex having a noun as head, preceded and followed by other
words. It is by no means uncommon to find such items in a noun phrase:
The new gas stove in the kitchen which I bought last month has a very
efficient oven.
Subject complements, direct objects and object complements may be
realizad by the same range of structures as subjects:
He was the chairman; He saw the chairman; They made him the chairman.
But subject and object complements have the additional possibility of being
realized by adjective phrases (having an adjective as head), as in:
She made Daniel
much happier
Indirect objects have chiefly noun phrases as their realizations, as in:
Dennis had given the girl a hug
Unlike direct objects and subjects they cannot be realizad by that- clauses.
COMPLEMENTS Express a meaning which adds to that of another
clause element, either the subject (subject complement) or the object (object
 A subject complement usually follows the subject and verb. The verb
is most often a form of be, but it may also be one of a few other
verbs that are able to link complements to their subjects in meaning.
These are called copular (linking) verbs.
Viridiana is a doctor.
The bull became angry. (i.e. It was angry)
The song sounds lovely. (i.e. It is lovely)
Dennis turned 19 last week. (i.e. He was 19)
 An object complement usually follows the direct object, and its
meaning relates to that element. The basic identity between them is
shown in paréntesis.
They elected Calderon president.
(i.e. He is president)
That made me angry.
(i.e. I was angry)
They call him Dr Love. (i.e. He is Dr Love)
 Complements can be noun phrases (including single nouns),
adjective phrases (including single adjectives), pronouns, or certain
kinds of subordinate clause.
Carmen Aristegui is a good journalist.
They became husband and wife.
Michelle is very happy.
The car’s ready.
That’s it.
Where’s that?
That’s what I call music!