# Review for EE 3350 ```Review for EE 3350
Chapters 2 &amp; 3: Signals &amp; Systems Review
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Classification of Signals and Elementary Signals (Sinc, Rect, , , Unit Step, Sinc2
etc.)
Time Scale Manipulations
Energy and Power Calculations: Time and Frequency Domains; Parseval’s Theorem
Fourier Series: Various Forms and Relationships between the coefficients
Fourier Transform Properties and Applications
Energy and Power Spectral Densities: Linear System Inputs and Outputs
Signal Transmission Impairments
Essential Bandwidth
Chapter 4: Amplitude Modulation
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DSB-SC, DSB-TC, QAM, SSB and VSB: Modulation and Demodulation methods
(analytical &amp; systems)
Envelope Detection – All Aspects
(Note: This is an extremely important chapter. Learn everything in this chapter. The list
of bullets is small, but include numerous concepts, whose mastery is expected.)
Chapter 5: Angle Modulation
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Time Domain Expressions for EM, FM and PM
Instantaneous Frequency and Phase: Definition and calculation
NBFM and NBPM – Characteristics
Estimating the bandwidth of EM, PM and FM signals
Changes in FM/PM/EM Signal Bandwidth due to the changes in the
characteristics of the message/modulation signal
Tone Modulation and its spectral characteristics
Frequency Multiplication and its effect on carrier frequency and frequency
deviation. How does it differ from frequency conversion?
Armstrong’s method of FM Generation: Relationship between various parameters
FM Demodulation Methods: FM Discriminator, PLL
Pre-emphasis/De-emphasis FM
Chapter 6: Pulse Code Modulation
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Sampling Theorem and Signal Reconstruction
Aliasing and how to avoid it
“Two pieces of information” in 1 Hz Bandwidth: Minimum Transmission
Bandwidth
Quantization: Converting Samples to Bit Stream
 Uniform/Linear
 μ-law and A-law
 Accuracy Specifications: Max Quant. Error, SNRQ
Data Rate, Signaling and Transmission Bandwidth
DPCM: Quantizing the prediction error
 For fixed number of bits per sample, increases SNRQ over PCM
 For fixed SNRQ reduces the number of bits per sample
Delta Modulation: 1-bit quantizer, 1-sample predictor version of DPCM. Slope
overload and granular noise dictate the choice of step size. Heavily oversampled.
Chapter 7: Transmission of Digital Data
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Line Codes and Transmission Bandwidths
Nyquist Criterion for zero Intersymbol Interference
Characteristics of Nyquist Criterion Pulses (Spectrum, Waveform) – Max. Data Rate,
Transmission Bandwidth, Roll-off Factor
Data Rate, Roll-off Factor and Transmission Bandwidth – Relationship
Controlled Intersymbol Interference: Duobinary Signaling and its characteristics
Precoding (Differential Encoding)
Digital Carrier Systems: Waveforms and Transmission Bandwidths
Chapter 10: Random Variables
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Concept of a Random Variable
Discrete and Continuous Random Variables, PDF and CDF
Uniform and Gaussian Distributions
Standard/Canonical form of a Gaussian PDF (zero mean, unity standard deviation)
and associated tables
General Form of the Gaussian PDF, and how to calculate various probabilities using
the tables for the standard form
Threshold Detection: Probability of Error Calculation for polar signaling
Total SNR of a PCM System: Depends on (1) Signal Behavior, (2) (In)Accuracy of
Quantization, and (3) (Un)Reliability of the digital communication system.
Chapter 13: Digital Communication Receiver and Performance
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The Concept of a Matched Filter
General Binary Detection:
 MF Impulse Response for various signaling
 Threshold Calculation
 Probability of Error Calculation for various signaling schemes (Baseband and
Carrier) and how to use in a SNRPCM calculations.
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