STUDY UNIT : A study of a historical issue or topic in a local context FOCUS STATEMENT: Pupils should be taught to investigate in depth one or two historical issues in a local context. Pupils should be taught about the development of castles or religious buildings in the period 1050 – 1540. The focus should be on the building and the lifestyle of the people who used them. YEAR GROUP 4 CONTENT The history of castles and medieval daily life CONTENT FOCUS WORKING QUESTIONS 1.Who built the first castles? The First Castles 2..Why were they built? Motte and Bailey Castles 3.Where were they built? 4.What were they made from? 5.How were they built 6. How do we know? Wooden Keeps 7.Who used the first castles? 8.What did castle builders need to change and why? The Stone Keep 9.What was life like in the stone keep? 10.Rooms of the keep. 11.Defence of the keep. 12Who lived in the keep 13What did they eat? 14.What weapons and tools were used? 15.What clothes did they wear? 16.Why did this type of castle need to change and in what ways? BIG QUESTION: What was it like to live in medieval times? ACTIVITIES 1.Establish a class timeline before the Norman invasion to see when castles begin.1a, 1b,2a 2.Story of the Norman conquest. Descriptive writing Newspaper reports of Battle of Hastings. Eyewitness accounts. Read primary source material and accounts of the battle to find out what happened. Fact opinion who was right – debate Use of Bayeux Tapestry2a 2c 3 4a 4b 5 3.Use of maps. Plot where main castles are today. Can the children see any pattern or reason for the siting of the castles at those places? Where would they put a castle. Problem solving and investigation. 3 4a 5 4.Research motte and bailey castles. 4a 4b 5.Why wood was used- easily available quick to use. 4a 4b 6. Make collage or model of motte and bailey. Look at artist impressions and reconstructions. 5 7.Research society at the time of the first castles. Creative writing and research . Order of society. Who lived in the keep? Why? 2a 2b 3 8.Problem solving and discussion causes and consequences. 2c 9.Group research. Groups to pick an aspect of society to investigate and then report back to the class.2a 4a 10. Make a large cross section collage showing the rooms of the keep and what they were for. Art work 2a 3 4a 5 11. Research. How would they attack this type of castle. Children work in groups to discover how best to attack the keep by looking for weak areas. 2a,2b 2c 12.Group research different levels of society in the keep and the roles they all played. Servants, lords, soldiers etc. report findings and make a wall display. 2a 4b 13.Look at typical medieval food from banquet menus.2a 4b 14. Look at some of the most common weapons of the day. Look at replica artefacts and discuss how they were used. Art work 2a 4b 5 15.Make collage of figures they have researched. Dress in replica clothes and role play. 2a 4b 5 16. Can the children see the problem with this type of castle. Where were the weak areas? What did they learn from their mistakes? 2c 3 5 RESOURCES Out and About Activity book Castles Castles, Pyramids and Places See inside a Castle – Usbourne Living I n Castle Times – Usbourne Knights and Castles Castles of Wales BBC publications Gerald of Wales pack – A window on the past Photographs of different Welsh Castles. Cardiff Castle Pack I Wonder Why – Castles had moats Kingfisher. Learning About HeraldryLadybird The Story of the Castle Caerphilly Castle photographs and information pack Cadw booklet Teachers Pack Visit Video cameras Staff of Cosmeston Medieval Village In what ways did it change? 4.Who was Gilbert De Clare? 5.How did he build the castle? 6.What was significant about the design of the castle? 7..How was the castle so strong? 8..What effect did the castle defences have on the history of the castle? 9.What was it like to live in the castle? Heating / lighting, Food, Clothing, Weapons, Entertainment Sanitation 10.How did the building of the castle alter Caerphilly? 11.What was the castle’s role in the history of Wales? 12..What myths and legends are associated with the castle? 13.How would the children advertise Caerphilly Castle today? 14.What would they change if they were Cadw? 15. How does the castle today tell us so much about medieval times? Looking at the building for clues 15. Look at the castle and decide what it tells us What have we learnt?