Political Islam - Department of International Relations

The State, Society and Politics in the Middle East
(MA course, 4 credits)
Fall Semester
AY 2014/2015
Schedule: Tue and Thu 13:30-15:10
Office Hours: Tue and Thu 11:00-13:00
Dr. Emel Akçali
Assistant Professor
Department of International Relations and European Studies
15 Nàdor u., Room 510
Email: AkcaliE@ceu.hu
Course description and objectives:
The main objective of the course is to familiarise the participants with major
questions that concern the ways in which societies are politically organized and
interact with the state in the Middle East. In order to achieve this objective and
understand the modes of state-societal interaction, we will examine concepts such as
family, kin, gender, class, sect, religion, civil society and scrutinize what is meant by
informal and formal politics, globalisation and the emerging transnational public
sphere in the Middle East. We will also question various frameworks in which these
concepts can be critically analysed and assessed. The course will also aim to
challenge the notion that there is an unchanging Middle East where things remain
much the same, whether in terms of human rights, authoritarianism or religious
fundamentalism. Finally, it will cover the recent popular revolts. e.g mainly in the
Arab world, but also in Iran, Turkey and Israel and investigate the dynamics behind
these events. It will be assumed that participants follow the current state of affairs in
the region to be able achieve the main objectives of the course.
Learning outcomes:
At the end of the course participants should be able to:
Be familiar with concepts and analytical tools applied to study the state, society
and politics in the Middle East and become aware of the different perspectives and
debates within the field.
Gain a deeper understanding of the role that class, kin, gender and religion play in
the construction of societal and political forces in the Middle East
Have a clear understanding of the state-society interaction in the Middle-East
Be able to problematize the democratic deficit, authoritarianism, gender issues and
religious fundamentalism in the Middle East and demonstrate critical independent
and reflective thought in discussions about the region
Develop a comparative viewpoint when analyzing the various state, society forms
and political systems in the Middle East
Understand and analyze the dynamics involved in the recent popular revolts and
transition in the region
Course format:
The courses will be based on lectures and student presentations on the required
reading. In the first 20 minutes of student presentations, the lecturer will provide an
overview of the seminar subject to be followed by the collaborative efforts of
presenter and the rest of the participants.
Participation to class discussion: (%10): Attendance and participation are of great
importance and will comprise 10 % of the grade. I will grade participation as follows:
attendance (but no participation) will receive a C+; good faith efforts at participation
will get you into the B/B+ range; valuable contributions will get you into the B+/A
Position paper: (%20) Throughout the course you will have to write one position
paper. The position paper should summarize the content of the readings for that
particular week and comment them relying on previous readings and lectures. The
papers must be uploaded to the course's e-learning website 24 hours prior to the
seminar session of the week. The position paper shall be between 1000-1500 words.
Student presentation (% 30): Each week, an individual or a group of students
(depending of the class enrolment) will present a critical discussion of their arguments
and theses about the required reading/s. During their presentation, participants can use
power-point presentations or distribute hand-outs about the main arguments, the
validity of the theses, the findings possible other reasoning that the author could have
taken of the required reading, and their own arguments and research about the subject.
Students should also prepare at least five questions which they think are relevant to be
discussed collectively in class.
A book review (% 30): At the beginning of the semester, participants are required to
choose a book on an issue concerning the state, society and politics in the Middle
East, let the lecturer know about it and hand in a review of this book on the last day of
the course. The review should be between 1000-2000 words. Some examples will be
distributed at the beginning of the semester and I will communicate to you the
expectations from a book review.
Students are expected to be actively present at all lectures and seminars. In case you
are unable to attend, you need to inform the lecturer via email prior to the meeting
you are going to miss. More than two excused absences or absences without a doctor's
confirmation will result in a ‘F’ for the attendance and participation grade.
Late Policy:
Assignments are to be handed in on the due date. Late submissions will translate into
the lowering of the grade by 1/3 for each two days of delay. Students are asked to
keep a copy of all work submitted for evaluation. As a rule, no extensions for exams
are granted. Being stressed about exams/papers for other classes does not count as a
reason to change the exam dates for this seminar. Nor do travel plans.
Plagiarism and academic dishonesty:
Plagiarism and various forms of academic dishonesty consist of misrepresentation by
deception or by other fraudulent means and will invariably result in serious
consequences, e.g. the grade of zero on an assignment, loss of credit with a notation
on the transcript, and/or suspension or expulsion from the university. In the presession students are advised on the issue but it is your responsibility to understand
what constitutes plagiarism and academic dishonesty. For information on their various
kinds please refer to: Academic Dishonesty and Plagiarism, CEU Policy Document
and the MA Handbook.
Course Outline and the Reading List
1a. Introduction: The emergence of the Middle Eastern region and stateformation LECTURE
1b. Sample Presentation on the required reading by the lecturer:
Anderson L. (1987) “The State in the Middle East and North Africa” Comparative
Politics 20 (1).
Ayubi, Nazih (1995) Overstating the Arab State, London: IB Tauris, chapter five
Hashim, Ahmed (2003) “Military Power and State Formation in Modern Iraq, Middle
East Policy, X:4, Winter.
Schwarz R. (2008) “The political economy of state-formation in the Arab Middle
East: Rentier states, economic reform, and democratization, Review of International
Political Economy 15:4 October: 599–621
Further Reading:
Bourdieu P. Wacquant L.J.D and Farage S. (1994) “Rethinking the State: Genesis and
Structure of the Bureaucratic Field” Sociological Theory 12/1, pp: 1-18.
Bourdieu, P. (1987), “The Force of Law: Towards a Sociology of the Juridical Field”,
Hastings Law Journal 38(5): 814-853.
Gerber, Haim (1987). The Social Origins of the Modern Middle East, Boulder: Lynne
Reinner (chapter 6 electronic source)
Ertman T. (2005) “State formation and state building” in A Handbook of Political
Sociology: States, Civil Societies and Globalization, in Janoski, A., Hicks and
Schwartz (eds.) Cambridge University Press, New York.
Hudson M.C (2001), “The Middle East”, Political Science and Politics, vol 34, no: 4:
Khoury P.S and Kostiner J. (eds) (1990), Tribes and State-formation in the Middle
East, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press.
Lewis B. (2002) The Arabs in History, Oxford University Press, 6th edition.
Lewis B. (2001) The emergence of modern Turkey, Oxford University Press, 3rd
Lewis B. (1994) The shaping of the modern Middle East, Oxford University Press.
Master D.M (2001), “State-formation theory and the Kingdom of Ancient Israel”,
Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 60, no. 2.
Tilly C. (1985), “War Making and State Making as Organized Crime” in Bringing the
State Back In in Evans P., Rueschemeyer D. and Skocpol T. (eds) Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press
2a.Analytical frameworks about how to study state, society and politics in the
Middle East LECTURE
2b. Student Presentation on the Required Reading
Carapico, Sheila (1998). Civil Society in Yemen, Cambridge: CUP, chap 1.
Lockman, Zachary (2004) Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and
Politics of Orientalism, Cambridge: CUP, chapter six and seven
Owen, R. (1992) State, Power and Politics in the making of the Modern Middle East,
Routledge, Introduction and Chapter 1
Further Reading:
Anderson, Lisa (1991). “Policy Making and Theory Building: American Political
Science and the Islamic Middle East,” in Hisham Sharabi, ed. Theory Politics and the
Arab World: Critical Responses, Routledge.
Bill, James A. and Robert Springborg (1990) Politics in the Middle East, New York:
Harper Collins, chapter one.
Bromley, Simon (1993). Rethinking Middle East Politics, Polity Press, chapter one
Hudson, Michael (1995). “The Political Culture Approach to Arab Democratization:
The Case for Bringing it Back Carefully,” in Rex Brynen, Bahgat Korany and Paul
Noble eds., Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World: Theoretical
Perspectives, Boulder: Lynne Reinner.
3a. Family, Kin and Class in the Middle East LECTURE
3b. Student Presentation on the Required Reading:
Beinin, Joel (2001). Workers and Peasants in the Modern Middle East, Cambridge:
Cambridge Uni, versity Press, Introduction and Chapter 3.
Charrad Mounira M. (2009) “Kinship, Islam, or Oil: Culprits of Gender Inequality?”, Politics
and Gender 5(4).
Kechichian Joseph A. (1986) “The Role of the Ulama in the Politics of an Islamic State: The
Case of Saudi Arabia”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 18: 1 (Feb): 53-71.
Singerman, Diane (1995). Avenues of Participation: Family, Politics and Networks in Urban
Quarters of Cairo, Princeton University Press, chapter 1.
Further Reading:
Asad, Talal and Roger Owen (1983), eds. The Middle East: The Sociology of
Developing Societies, Monthly Review Press
Batatu, Hanna (1999) Syria’s Lesser Peasantry and the Descendants of its Lesser
Notables, and their Politics, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Batatu, Hanna (1982). The Old Social Classes and Revolutionary Movements of Iraq,
Princeton: Princeton University Press.(electronic source CEU library)
Joseph, Souad (1985). “Family as Security and Bondage: A Political Strategy of the
Lebanese Working Class,” in Nicholas S. Hopkins and Saad Eddin Ibrahim eds., Arab
Society: Social Science Perspectives, Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.
Zubaida, Sami (1981). “Class and Community in Urban Politics,” in Sami Zubaida
ed.), Islam, the People and the State. IB. Tauris.
Dresch, Paul (1989). Tribes, Government and History in Yemen, Oxford: Clarendon
4a. Workers and Peasants and their political activism in the Middle East
4b. Student Presentation on the required reading:
Beinin, Joel (2001). Workers and Peasants in the Modern Middle East, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, chapter 5 only (Chapter 6 is attached as well. but it’s not
required for this class)
Feroz Ahmad (1994) “The development of working class consciousness in Turkey” in
Zachary Lockman (eds.), Workers and Working Classes in the Middle East: struggles,
histories, historiographies, Albany: State University of New York Press.
Moaddel, Mansoor, (2003) Class, Politics, and Ideology in the Iranian Revolution,
New York:Columbia University Press (Chapter 4).
Posusney, Marsha Pripstein (1997). Labor and the State in Egypt, Columbia
University Press, chapter 3.
Further reading:
Beinin, Joel. (2007) “The Militancy of al-Mahala al-Kubra,” Middle East Report
Online, September 29, Access at: http://www.merip.org/mero/mero092907.html
Beinin, Joel and Hossam al-Hamalawy (2007) “Strikes in Egypt spread from Center
of Gravity”. Middle East Report Online, May 9, Access at:
Batatu, Hanna (1999). Syria’s Lesser Peasantry and the Descendants of its Lesser
Notables, and their Politics, Princeton University Press, chapters 11 and 12.
Chalcraft, John (2005). “Engaging the State: Peasants and Petitions in Egypt on the
Eve of Colonial Rule,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 37: 303-325.
Davis, Eric. (1994) “History for the Many or History for the Few: The Historiography
of the Iraqi Working Class,” in Zachary Lockman, ed. Workers and Working Classes
in the Middle East: Struggles, Histories, Historiographies, New York, SUNNY Press.
Kazemi, Ferhad and John Waterbury, (eds) (1991). Peasants and Politics in the
Modern Middle East, Miami, Florida: International University Press.
Perthes, Volker (1991). “The Bourgeoisie and the Ba‘th,” Middle East Report 170
(1991): 31-7.
Toth, James (1999). Rural labor movements in Egypt and their impact on the state,
1961-1992. University Press of Florida.
5a. Sectarianism and Politicised Religion in the Middle East LECTURE
5b. Student Presentation on the Required Reading:
Dabashi Hamid (2011), Shiísm- A religion of Protest, Massachusetts, Harvard
University Press, 2011, chapter 2.
Haddad F. (2012), Sectarianism in Iraq, Columbia University Press, (Chapter 3)
Haykel, Bernard (2001). “The Entrenchment of ‘Non-Sectarian’ Sunnism in Yemen,”
ISIM Newsletter 7 March, p. 19
Makdisi, Ussama (2000). The Culture of Sectarianism: community, history and violence in 19th
century Lebanon, University of California Press, chapters 1, 5 and Epilogue.
Further reading:
Cole, Juan. “Shi‘ites as National Minorities,” in Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy
War: The Politics, Culture and History of Shi‘ite Islam, I.B. Tauris, 2002.
Gilsenan, Michael. Lords of the Lebanese Marches: Violence and Narrative in an Arab Society,
London: IB Tauris, 1996.
Johnson, M (1986). Class and Client in Beirut: the Sunni Muslim Community and the Lebanese
State 1840-1985, Ithaca Press.
Longuenesse, Elizabeth (1979). “The Class Nature of the State in Syria,” MERIP
Reports 77: 3-11.
Makdisi, Ussama (1996). “Reconstructing the Nation Sate: The Modernity of Sectarianism in
Lebanon,” Middle East Report 26, 3.
Pandey, Gaynendra. The Construction of Communalism in Colonial North India, Delhi: Oxford
University Press, 1992.
Picard, Elizabeth. “The Political Economy of Civil War in Lebanon,” in Steven
Heydemann, ed., War, Institutions and Social Change in the Middle East , University
of California Press, 2000, 292-319.
Tripp, Charles. A History of Iraq, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
6a The politics of the Governed LECTURE
6b. Student Presentation on the Required reading:
Bayat, Asef (1997). Street Politics: Poor People's Movements in Iran, Columbia
University Press, chapters 6 and 7
Ismail, Salwa (2006). Political Life in Cairo’s New Quarters: Encountering the
Everyday State, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, chapter 2.
Mitchell, Timothy (1990) “Everyday Metaphors of Power,” The& Soc.19:5: 545-77.
Singerman, Diane (1995). Avenues of Participation: Family, Politics and Networks in
Urban Quarters of Cairo, Princeton University Press, chapter 5
Further Reading:
Chattergee, Partha. The Politics of the Governed, New York, Columbia University
Press, 2006.
Scott, James C. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts, Yale
University Press, 1990.
Scott, James C. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance,
Oxford University Press, 1990.
White, Jenny B. Islamist Mobilization in Turkey, Seattle and London: University of
Washington Press, 2002.
7a. Encountering the Everyday State LECTURE
7b. Student Presentation on the Required reading:
Borneman John (2007), Syrian episodes: sons, fathers, and an anthropologist in
Aleppo, Princeton, Princeton University Press, pp: 26-84.
Gupta, Akil (1995). “Blurred Boundaries: The Discourse of Corruption, the Culture
of Politics, and the Imagined State,” American Ethnologist 22, 2: 375-402.
Ismail, Salwa (2006). Political Life in Cairo’s New Quarters: Encountering the
Everyday State, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, chapter 5.
Navaro-Yashin, Yael (2002). Faces of the State. Princeton: Princeton University
Press, chapter 4.
Further reading:
Abu-Lughod, Lila. Dramas of Nationhood: The Politics of Television in Egypt
University of Chicago Press, 2004, chapter 5.
Mitchell, Timothy. “The Limits of the State: Beyond Statist Approaches and Their
Critics,” The American Political Science Review, 85:1 (March 1991): 77-96.
Navaro-Yashin, Yael. Faces of the State, Princeton: PUP, 2002, chapter 5.
Zubaida, Sami. “Class and Community in Urban Politics,” in Sami Zubaida, Islam,
the People and the State, London: IB Tauris, 1991.
Wedeen, Lisa. Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in
Contemporary Syria, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999, chaps 3 and 5.
8a. Secularism, Islam and Gender in the Middle East LECTURE
8b. Student presentation on the Required Reading
Al-Ali N. (2000), “Secularism: Challenging neo-orientalism and histories”,
Secularism, Gender and the State in The Middle East, The Egyptian Women's
Movement, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 128-148.
Amireh A. (2000) “Nawal El Saadawi: Arab Feminism in a Transnational World”,
Chicago Journal, 26: 1 (Autumn) pp. 215-249
Norris P. (2009) “Petroleum Patriarchy? A Response to Ross” Politics & Gender 5(4).
(This should be read in order to better engage with Ross’ article, but will not be
included in the presentation)
Parwin Paidar “Feminism and Islam in Iran” in Kandiyoti D (2007) (ed), Gendering
the Middle East: emerging perspectives, I.B. Tauris, London, pp: 51-69
Ross, M. (2008), “Oil, Islam, and Women”, American Political Science Review,
Further Reading:
Al-Nasr Tofol, (2009) “Critique of Michael L. Ross’ Article, “Oil, Islam, and
Women”, vol IV, New Voices in Public Policy, George Mason University.
Abu-Lughod, L., (2002) “Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving?” American
Anthropologist 104(3): 783-790.
Adelkha, Fariba. Being Modern in Iran, London: Hurst & CO, 1999, chapter 6.
Blaydes, L. and Drew L. (2008), “The Political Economy of Women's Support for
Fundamentalist Islam” World Politics, 60.
Charrad, M. (2009). “Kinship, Islam, or Oil: Culprits of Gender Inequality”. Politics
& Gender 5(4): 546-553.
Donno D. and Russett B. (2004), “Islam, Authoritarianism and Female
Empowerment: What are the Linkages?”, World Politics, vol. 56, no: 4, pp: 582-607.
Haeri S. (2009) “Women, Religion, and Political Agency”, in Gheissair A. (ed)
Contemporary Iran, Economy, Society and Politics, Oxford University Press: 125149.
Kostiner J. (1990) “Transforming Dualities: Tribe and State Formation in Saudi
Arabia, in Khoury, P. S., Kostiner, J. (eds), Tribes and State Formation in the Middle
East. London: I.B. Tauris, pp: 226-251
Kumaraswamy P.R (2006) “Who am I? The Identity Crises in the Middle East”,
Middle East Review of International Affairs vol. 10 no:1
9a. Neo-Liberal globalisation: Transformation of the State, Society and Politics in the
Middle East LECTURE
9b. Student Presentation on the Required Reading:
Guazzone L. and Pioppo D. (eds) (2009) The Arab state and neo-liberal globalization
: the restructuring of state power in the Middle East, Ithaca, (Chapter on NeoLiberalism)
Hinnebusch R. (2008) “Modern Syrian Politics”, History Compass 6/1: 263-285.
Hourani N. (2010) “Transnational Pathways and Politico-economic Power:
Globalisation and the Lebanese Civil War”, Geopolitics, 15: 290-311.
Zarrokh E. (2010) “Iranian Islamic banking”, European Journal of Law and
Economics 29: 177-193.
Further reading:
Giacomo. L (1995), “Resources, Revenue, and Authoritarianism in the Arab World:
Beyond the Rentier State?” in Brynen R., Korany B., and Noble P (eds). Political
Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World, Volume 1: Theoretical
Perspectives, ed. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Guazzone L. and Pioppo D. (eds) (2009) The Arab state and neo-liberal
globalization: the restructuring of state power in the Middle East, Ithaca, Reading
(other chapters)
Hertog, S.(2007). “Shaping the Saudi State: Human Agency’s Shifting Role in
Rentier-State Formation”, International Journal of Middle East Studies. 39 (4).
Kienle, Eberhard, ed. Contemporary Syria: Liberalization Between Cold War and
Cold Peace, London: British Academic Press, 1994.
Martinez, Luiz. The Civil War in Algeria 1990-98, London: Hurst, 2000 (chapter 6The ways to make big money)
Perthes, Volker. “A Look at Syria’s Upper Class: The Bourgeoisie and the Ba'th,”
Middle East Report 170 (1991): 31-7.
Perthes, Volker, ‘The Syrian Private Industrial and Commercial Sectors and the
State’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 24/2 (May 1992): 207–30.
Perthes, Volker. The Political Economy of Syria Under Asad, London: I. B. Tauris,
Ross, M. L. (2001), “Does Oil Hinder Democracy?” World Politics. 53.
Scharwz R. (2004), “State Formation Processes in Rentier States: The Middle Eastern
Case”, Paper presented at the Fifth Pan-European Conference on International
Relations, ECPR Standing Group on International Relations, Section 34 “International
Relations Meet Area Studies) The Hague.
Shambayati H. (1994) “The Rentier State, Interest Groups, and the Paradox of
Autonomy- State and Business in Turkey and Iran”, Comparative Politics, 26: 3.
10a. The development of Civil Society and politics of resistance in the Middle
10b. Student Presentation on the Required Reading:
Carapico, Sheila (1998). Civil Society in Yemen, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
chapters 6 & 7.
Christopher, Alexander (1997). “Authoritarianism and Civil Society in Tunisia,”
Middle East Report (October-December).
Ismail, S (2011) “Authoritarian Government, Neoliberalism and Everyday Civilities
in Egypt”, Third World Quarterly, 32: 5, 845–862
Roy, Sarah (1995). “Civil Society in the Gaza Strip: Obstacles and Reconstruction,”
in Richard Norton, ed. Civil Society in the Middle East Volume 2, ed. Brill.
Further Reading:
Abd al-Rahman, Maha (2004). Civil Society Exposed, London: I.B. Tauris.
Hammami, Rema (1995). “NGOs: the Professionalization of Politics,” Race and
Class 37, 2: 51-63.
Hammami, Rema (2000). “Palestinian NGOs Since Oslo: From NGO Politics to
Social Movements?” Middle East Report, 214 (Spring).
Sadawski, Yahya (1993). “The New Orientalism and the Democracy Debate,” Middle
East Report (July- August).
Schwedler, Jillian. (1995) Civil Society in the Middle East: A Primer, Boulder,
Colorado: Lynne Reinner, Introduction.
White, Jenny B. (2002) “Civil Society in Whose Service?” in Jenny B. White,
Islamist Mobilization in Turkey, Seattle and London: University of Washington Press,
pp. 178-211.
11a. The New and the Transnational Media in the Middle East
11b. Student Presentation on the Required Reading
Aouragh, M. (2011) Confined offline, Traversing online: Palestinian Mobility through
the Prism of the Internet. Mobilities 6 (3) 375-397.
Al-Rasheed, Madawi (2007) Contesting the Saudi State. Cambridge: CUP, chapter 4.
Anderson, Jon W. (2003) “New Media, New Publics: Reconfiguring the Public
Sphere of Islam,” Social Research 70:3 (Fall): 887-906. Available at:
Also available through SOAS Library Electronic Journals Databases.
Lynch, Marc.(2007) “Blogging the New Arab Public,” Arab Media and Society 1
Further Reading:
Bunt, Gary (2003). Islam in the Digital Age, London, Pluto Press.
Eickelman, Dale F. and Jon W. Anderson (1999), eds. New Media in the Muslim
World: The Emerging Public Sphere, Indiana University Press.
Fandy, Mamoun, (1999) “Cyberresistance: Saudi Opposition between Globalization
and Localization,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 41, 1: 124-147.
Hafez Kai (ed.) (2008) Arab Media Power and Weakness, New York and London
(Chapter 8).
Lynch, Marc (2006). Voices of the New Arab Public: Iraq, al-Jazeera and the Middle
East Today. Columbia University Press.
Lynch, Marc.(2003) “Beyond the Arab Street: Iraq and the Arab Public Sphere,”
Politics and Society 31, 1 (March): pp. 55-91.
Hofheinz, Albrecht. (2007) “Arab Internet Use: Popular Trends and Public Impact,”
in Naomi Sakr ed., Arab Media and Political Renewal: Community, Legitimacy and
Public Life, London: IB Tauris, pp 56-79.
12a The Precursors of the Arab Spring, The Israeli Arab-Spring and the Gezi
Protests in Turkey
12b Student Presentation on the Required Reading:
Al-Ali N. (2012) “Gendering the Arab Spring”, Middle East Journal of Culture and
Communication 5: 26-31.
Ismail S. (2011), “ The Syrian Uprising: Imagining and Performing the Nation”
Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism: 11: 3.
Khalid A. (2012 ) “Precursors of the Egyptian Revolution”, Bulleting of Institute of
Development Studies, 43: 1.
Monterescu D. and Shaindlinger N. (2013) “Situational Radicalism: The Israeli “Arab
Spring” and the (Un)Making of the Rebel City”, Constellations 19 (4).
Tufekci Z. “ Come, Come, Whoever You Are.” As a Pluralist Movement Emerges
from Gezi Park in Turkey” at http://technosociology.org/ and “Networked politics
from Tahrir to Taksim: Is there a Social Media-Fueled Protest Style” at
NOTA BENE: The instructor reserves the right to change the course content at any
time during the semester, depending on the needs of the specific students taking the
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