Chemistry Bonding and Structure unit HS

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Unit Name: Bonding and Structure
Author: Dennis Steigerwald
Course/Grade: Chemistry
Singapore American School
The Bonding and Structure Unit builds on students’ prior knowledge of atomic structure.
Ionic and covalent bonding concepts are covered and applied to both real life and "designer"
chemicals. Inter-molecular/particle forces are "uncovered" while students observe
macroscopic properties of ionic and molecular substances. Ultimately, students will
understand how nanoscopic properties (electrostatics, polarity, geometric shape, etc.)
influence macroscopic properties (standard phases, solubility, conductivity, vapor pressure,
etc.). The unit requires roughly four weeks to complete and can be followed by
Printed Materials:
Chemistry, Prentice Hall
Vernier Lab Books for CBL
Molecular Modeling Information Cards (from kits)
Solubility of Toxins in the Environment Articles (TBD)
Ionic Introductory Resource with simulations:
Building Ionic Compounds Practice:
Chemical Bonding Overview:
Dipoles, Polarity, and Induced Dipoles (web PowerPoint)
Intermolecular Forces Overview:
Internet Resource Links:
2.1.6 Biological, chemical, and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form
bonds from electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules. Know that salt crystals are repeating patterns (lattices) of cations and anions held together
by electrostatic attractions. Know how to use ionization energies and electronegativity data to predict bond formation
and electronegativity to predict bond polarity. Identify and explain inter-particle forces of attraction such as hydrogen bonding, dipoledipole attractions, and van der Waals forces including London dispersion forces. Know the relationship between the type of interparticle attractions in liquids and solids and
their boiling and melting temperatures.
Students will understand…
…that atoms (beyond the noble gases) bond with other atoms because they desire a full outer shell of
electrons; the Octet Rule.
…the difference between Ionic and Covalent bonding; using a continuum rather than absolutes.
…that formation of bonds influences the structure of a substance.
…that nanoscopic relationships in bonding influence macroscopic properties.
…the whole is a sum of its parts.
Why do atoms bond?
Do all atoms bond in the same manner?
What makes matter chemically stable?
How do nanoscopic relationships between atoms influence macroscopic properties?
How are nanoscopic structure and macroscopic properties related?
How is a system affected by the sum of the parts?
- Terms: Electrostatic, Electronegativity, Ionic vs. Covalent Bonding, Lattice, Molecular Geometry,
Intermolecular Attraction (Dipole, Hydrogen Bond, Induced Dipole or London Dispersion)
- Atoms want a full outer shell; Octet Rule.
- Covalent bonded atoms share electrons.
- Ionic bonded atoms transfer electrons.
- Electronegativity helps predict bond properties and intermolecular attraction.
- Identify Metallic, Covalent, and Ionic Bonds.
- Predict the general bonding nature between atoms.
- Predict resulting formulas when atoms chemically combine.
- Predict the properties of compounds given resulting formulas and/or nanoscopic properties.
Title:Writing an Element's Singles Column
GOAL: Your task is to write a persuasive “singles column” for an element. Place yourself in
the elements “shoes;” considering desirable (and non-desirable) “interpersonal” traits for
potential mates. Woo potential matches by describing the benefits to chemical society for
your potential bond.
ROLE: You are an element of your choice (except noble gases) desiring to bond with other
atom(s) with which there will be mutual benefit.
AUDIENCE: All elements that can form a bond with you; based on intrapersonal attraction
and realistic existence under standard conditions.
SITUATION: Somehow, as a reactive element, you find yourself without a partner(s) to
form a bond. Given the current state of social networking, your best bet is to write a singles
column for an online match making service (or Facebook type environment).
PRODUCT, PERFORMANCE, AND PURPOSE: Write a singles column as a lonely (unstable)
element looking for a formidable partner. Your personal description should include current
nanoscopic and macroscopic properties that would be important when other elements are
considering your “attractions.” In addition, interpersonal and environmental benefits for a
potential bond need to be advertised. Overall, your goal is to attract a mate that will bring
stability and beneficial properties within a realistic environment.
STANDARDS AND CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: Your singles column must correctly identify
nanoscopic properties for your chosen element; electronegativity, number of resident
electrons, electrons that must be gained/lost, In addition, the potential nanoscopic
(electronegativity difference, type of bond, polarity, number of bonds needed, geometric
shape, hybridization, etc.) and macroscopic properties (standard state, solubility,
conductivity, volatility, etc.) of a resulting bond (based on bonding with a member of a
particular periodic family) must be realistic. Providing examples of real life compounds will
strengthen your arguments.
Title:Other Performance Tasks:
Representative Elements Lab – transitioning from atomic structure to atomic bonding
Molecular Building (with Naming) Activity
Evaporation Lab Analysis: Intermolecular Attraction and Volatility
Solubility Lab: uncovering solubility rules
Conductivity Lab: incl. dissociation equations
Designer Chemical Activity
Student Peer/Self Assessment using Department Assessment Rubrics
- Unit Quizzes/Tests
- Reading Quizzes
- Lab Analysis (qualitative and quantitative)
Introduce Essential Questions (W)
Engaging Activity: Endothermic/Exothermic Demonstrations (H)
Introduces chemical changes (synthesis).
Students wonder where does the energy come from; references potential energy.
Why are some things endothermic and others exothermic?
Explore: Representative Elements Lab Exploration (H)
Atomic/elemental structure will be extended into compounds.
Students will start to uncover familiar properties on the Periodic table.
Elaboration: Ionic and Covalent Bonding Lecture and Reading (E)
The fundamental terms and concepts are given in mini lectures between activities.
All readings will have guided notes/flow charts that link to the lectures.
Evaluate: Designer Chemical Activity (R, E, & T)
Using electronegativity tables, students will create their own “artificial” ionic compounds and name them
based on naming trends.
Properties can also be predicted based on familiar trends.
Designer chemicals will then be compared to real world compounds and their properties.
Evaluate: Molecular Modeling Activity (R & E)
Using restrictive modeling kits, students will put together covalently bonded compounds.
Geometric Structure and Names will be determined by their formula.
Intermolecular Attractions will be introduced.
Elaborate: Intermolecular Force Lecture and Reading (E)
Explore: Intermolecular Labs (R & E)
Conductivity Lab: ionic vs. molecular; including dissociation equations
Solubility Lab: ionic, polar, and nonpolar; including uncovering solubility rules
Evaporation Lab Analysis: intermolecular attraction and volatility; introduces vapor pressure
Evaluate: Singles Column GRASPS Performance Activity (T)
Student’s peer/self assess their Single Columns using department assessment rubrics. (T)
Extend: Ionic and Molecular Nomenclature web/flow chart activity.
Reinforces predicting chemical structure.
Is an introduction to nomenclature.
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