Guided Lecture Notes Chapter 20: Control of Respiratory Function Learning Objective 1. State the difference between the conducting and the respiratory airways (refer to Figs. 20-2 and 20-5.). Differentiate between respiration and ventilation (refer to PowerPoint Slide 2). List the components of the conducting airways, describe their structure, and state their function (refer to PowerPoint Slide 3 and Fig. 20-4). List the components of the respiratory airways, describe their structure, and state their function (refer to PowerPoint Slide 4 and Fig. 20-6). Identify the structures of the pleura, and explain their function (refer to PowerPoint Slide 5 and Fig. 20-1). Learning Objective 2. Trace the movement of air through the airways, beginning in the nose and oropharynx and moving into the respiratory tissues of the lungs. Trace the movement of air through the respiratory system from the nose and oropharynx to the alveoli. Learning Objective 3. Describe the function of the mucociliary blanket. State where the mucociliary blanket is located, and describe its structure and function. Learning Objective 4. Define the term water vapor pressure, and cite the source of water for humidification of air as it moves through the airways. Describe how water vapor pressure keeps air in the conducting airways moist. Explain how water vapor pressure changes from the conducting airways to the alveoli. List factors that affect the amount of water vapor pressure in the airways. Learning Objective 5. Differentiate the function of the respiratory and pulmonary circulations that supply the lungs. Describe the differences in function between the pulmonary and bronchial circulations. Describe collateral circulation in relation to the bronchial vasculature. Learning Objective 6. State the function of the two types of alveolar cells. Identify the types of alveolar cells, and describe their structure and function (refer to Fig. 20-8). Learning Objective 7. Describe the basic properties of gases in relation to their partial pressures and their pressures in relation to volume. Define atmospheric pressure and partial pressure, and identify factors that affect each. Learning Objective 8. State the definition of intrathoracic, intrapleural, and intraalveolar pressures, and state how each of these pressures changes in relation to atmospheric pressure during inspiration and expiration. Define ventilation, and explain how the pressures within the lungs change according to a pressure gradient (refer to Fig. 20-9). Compare intrathoracic, intrapleural, and intra-alveolar pressures between inhalation and exhalation (refer to Fig. 20-10). Identify the respiratory muscles and the phase of the breathing cycle in which they participate (refer to PowerPoint Slide 8 and Fig. 20-11). Explain how the thoracic cage and respiratory muscles affect ventilation. Learning Objective 9. State a definition of lung compliance. Define lung compliance, elastic recoil, and surface tension (refer to PowerPoint Slide 11). Identify factors that affect lung compliance (refer to PowerPoint Slide 11). Learning Objective 10. Use Laplace’s law to explain the need for surfactant in maintaining the inflation of small alveoli. Explain the function of surfactant as it relates to alveolar inflation (refer to PowerPoint Slide 12 and Figs. 20-12 and 20-13). Learning Objective 11. State the major determinant of airway resistance. Define airway resistance, and describe the effects of airway resistance on air flow using Poiseuille’s law (refer to Fig. 20-14). Learning Objective 12. Explain why increasing lung volume (e.g., taking a deep breath) reduces airway resistance. Describe the relationship between airway resistance and lung volume. Learning Objective 13. Define inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, vital capacity, and residual volume. Define inspiratory reserve, expiratory reserve, vital capacity, and residual volume, and describe how they are measured (refer to PowerPoint Slide 14, Table 20-1, and Fig. 20-16). Identify factors that cause lung volumes to decrease. Learning Objective 14. Describe the method for measuring FEV1.0. Describe pulmonary function studies and the measurement of FEV1.0 (refer to PowerPoint Slide 16 and Table 20-2). Learning Objective 15. Trace the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Describe the relationship between ventilation and perfusion as it relates to oxygenation (refer to PowerPoint Slide 19). Learning Objective 16. Differentiate between pulmonary and alveolar ventilation. Describe the difference between pulmonary and alveolar ventilation, and list factors that affect the efficiency of each. Learning Objective 17. Explain why ventilation and perfusion must be matched. Explain what is meant by ventilation–perfusion mismatch, and list possible causes of hypoxia (refer to PowerPoint Slide 21 and Fig. 20-17). Learning Objective 18. Cite the difference between dead air space and shunt. Using ventilation and perfusion, explain the difference between dead space and shunt. Differentiate between anatomic and alveolar dead space. Explain how both of the above lead to hypoxia. Learning Objective 19. List four factors that affect the diffusion of gases in the alveoli. Identify factors that affect alveolar diffusion of gases. Cite examples that increase or decrease alveolar diffusion. Learning Objective 20. Explain the difference between PO2 and hemoglobin-bound oxygen and O2 saturation and content. Explain the oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve, and list factors that cause it to move to the right or left (refer to PowerPoint Slides 26–29 and Fig. 20-18). Differentiate between oxygen content and oxygen saturation (refer to PowerPoint Slides 24 and 25). List the two transport mechanisms for oxygen and the three transport mechanisms for carbon dioxide (refer to PowerPoint Slide 30). Learning Objective 21. Explain the significance of a shift to the right and a shift to the left in the oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve. Explain the consequences of a shift in the oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve (either to the right or to the left). Learning Objective 22. Discuss the neural control of the muscles that control ventilation. Identify components of the respiratory center, and describe how each affects ventilation (refer to PowerPoint Slide 33 and Figure 20-19). Differentiate between autonomic and voluntary control of breathing. Learning Objective 23. Describe the function of the chemoreceptors and lung receptors in the regulation of ventilation. Describe the location, structure, and function of peripheral chemoreceptors and central chemoreceptors (refer to PowerPoint Slide 34). Describe the location, structure, and function of baroreceptors, including stretch, irritant, and juxtacapillary receptors. Learning Objective 24. Trace the integration of the cough reflex from stimulus to explosive expulsion of air that constitutes the cough Describe the purpose of the cough reflex. List the sequence of events that comprise the cough reflex. Explain the adverse effects of prolonged coughing.