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Grade 8 : Population Revision Guide
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Figure 1
Figure 2
Sample Answers
Level 4/5 work (giving specific examples and referring to the map)
Figure 1 and 2 both show population density maps. Figure 2 is more detailed and how
densely populated areas of the world are. It is clear that India and China are the most
densely populated. Some areas in the East of China have a population density of over 5000
people per km squared, for example Shanghai. This is partly because the eastern part of
China has more lowland which is easier to build on. In comparison some areas like Australia
and Russia have a low population density with between 0 – 1 people per square km. This is
because of the harsh landscape in each country. The desert in Australia is too dry for people
to live in and the climate in Russia is too cold.
Level 2/3 ( providing a basic overview of the map with very little detail)
This map shows where people live. A lot of people live in Europe and Asia. Not as many
people live in the top part of North America. It is too cold there. No people live in the North
of Africa.
Why do people live in some parts of the world and not others?
Latitude – people often live near the equator because it is hot and not near the north or
south pole because it is too cold.
Altitude – it is easier to build on low land rather than mountains
Coastal areas – people want to live beside the sea because they are trading points and
the cool sea breeze.
Migration – people prefer to live in some countries because they are safer than others
Historical areas – which were once major trading points.
Population Growth
Birth rates = the number of live births per 1000 of the population.
Death rate = the number of deaths per 1000 of the population.
Migration = the movement of people in and out of a country.
Natural increase = the birth rate minus the death rate.
LEDC = Less economically developed country
MEDC = More economically developed country.
If the birth rate is higher than the death rate, the total population will increase.
If the death rate is higher than the birth rate, then the total population will decrease.
Population growth rates are highest in LEDC, where birth rates are high but death rates are
beginning to fall. Death rates are falling due to global improvements in health and medicine.
With the population increasing rapidly, there is a threat of over population. If this happens
there will be an impact on the following….
Increased pressure on food supplies
Increased number of deaths from malnutrition (not having
enough food to eat).
Increased numbers of dumps – which damage the environment.
More incinerators (factories which burn rubbish)
Longer waiting lists for operations/ appointments to see the
Cost of medicine may increase if it is in short supply
Overcrowding in hospitals (this is already happening in some
Increased class sizes
Two tier day in schools ( some people may have to go to school
from 2pm – 8pm
Increased competition for university places.
Increased pressure on water supplies.
Quotas put in place on how much water you can use
Cost of water will increase
Water may also become more polluted
Fossil fuels will run out
Pressure to ensure renewable energy (solar/wind/ tidal power)
will provide enough energy for the population.
Population Pyramids
Population pyramids = used to show population structure.
Life expectancy = how on, on average, a person is expected to live.
Population pyramids can be drawn for a whole country or individual settlements (towns or villages).
The shape of a population pyramid gives us information about birth rates, death rates, and life
A population pyramid also tells us about the number of dependents living in an area. Young
dependants are children under the age of 15, who are still supported by their family. Elderly
dependants are those people aged over 65, who on no longer work. Both of these groups are
depend on the economically active (those of working age).
Remember – population pyramids can change over time!
The population pyramid of the UAE is very
different than other countries. The most
noticeable difference is that there are far
males than females. This is certainly true for
the 30 – 34 age bracket. In 2014, there were
645 thousand males and approximately 200
thousand females. There is a low birth rate
and the life expectancy is lower than the UK.
There are far more males than females
because there are more jobs which attract
male workers; for example, these are in
construction and oil rigs. These types of jobs
attract many migrant workers.
The population pyramid for the UK is typical
of an MEDC. The ratio of males to females is
quite even. The low birth rate is due to
access to good health care and education.
The life expectancy is high, with people
living to 85+. The low death rate is a result
of many factors, such as improved
medication, diet, new safety laws etc.
This population pyramid of Kenya is a good
example on an LEDC 9(poor country). There
is a very high birth rate, which is seen when
the pyramid has a wide base. This is because
there is a lack of contraception and poor
education. Child immortality is high. The
narrow top means that there is a high death
rate. Food shortages, poor health care, lack
of education all result in a lower life
Problems with an ageing population
The population in most MEDCs is stable (they have low birth rates and low death rates).
However, some MEDCs face the issue of having an ageing population. In Germany, the
population is declining because the birth rate is lower than the death rate. Governments
need to plan for an ageing population. More hospitals, retirements homes and public
transport will be needed. Governments will also need to plan for pensions which means
taxes may have to rise.
The bare bones!
Birth rates = the number of
live births per 1000 of the
Death rate = the number of
deaths per 1000 of the
Migration = the movement
of people in and out of a
Overpopulation causes problems
Health care
Problems on an ageing
More hospitals
Better public
transport needed
Taxes will be raised
to pay for pensions.
Low birth rate
Low death rate
People live longer
High birth rate
High death rate
People die at an early age.