US History Biographies Unit 4 Knowledge and Skills Statements (US.4) History. The student understands the emergence of the United States as a world power between 1898 and 1920. US History Biographies Student Expectation A. Explain why significant events, policies, and individuals such as the Spanish-American War, U.S. expansionism, Henry Cabot Lodge, Alfred Thayer Mahan, Theodore Roosevelt, Sanford B. Dole, and missionaries moved the United States into the position of a world power; Biography Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924) A senator from Massachusetts, Henry Cabot Lodge supported American expansion as a way to increase national pride, spread civilization, and thereby gain world power. He and Theodore Roosevelt, drawing upon the theories of naval historian Alfred Thayer Mahan, favored the "large policy." This depended on world trade and ship transport. An American-controlled canal through Central America was necessary as were coaling stations and naval bases in the Pacific, on Hawaii, Guam, Wake Island, and in the Philippines. A strong navy was required to protect the merchant marine as it sailed from North America to the Far East and points in between. Alfred Thayer Mahan (1840-1914) Alfred Thayer Mahan was an admiral and naval historian whose theories on the relationship of sea power and world commerce influenced foreign policy development in the 1880s and 1890s. His theories were published in The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890). Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) Born in New York, Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th president. He graduated from Harvard, was elected to the New York legislature, wrote history and served as president of the New York police boards. He gained national attention as the leader of the "Rough Riders," a volunteer cavalry unit which served in the SpanishAmerican War. He served as governor of New York and then as McKinley's vice president. When McKinley was assassinated in 1901, Roosevelt succeeded to the presidency and was later elected to a full term in 1904. He supported expansionism, the development of a canal across Central America, and a powerful navy. Under Roosevelt's direction the United States became the police of the western hemisphere and numerous reforms were enacted: he prosecuted big business for trust violations, supported passage of the Pure Food D. Understand the contributions of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) led by General John J. Pershing; F. Discuss the importance of congressional Medal of Honor recipients, including individuals of all races and genders such as Vernon J. Baker, Alvin York, and Roy Benavidez. and Drug Act, and created national parks. Sanford B. Dole (1844-1926) When U.S. President McKinley came into office in 1897; Dole led renewed negotiations for annexation. The Republic of Hawaii offered a treaty of annexation, which the U.S. accepted by joint resolution in 1898. Dole drove a hard bargain, in which the U.S. paid off the accumulated national debt of the Kingdom and Republic (paying more than the market value of the ceded lands at that time). Dole also successfully demanded that although the public lands of Hawaii would be ceded to U.S. control, those lands would not become part of the U.S. land inventory but would be held as a public trust for the benefit of all the residents of Hawaii. Dole wrote the Organic Act whereby annexation was implemented. In 1900, he became Hawaii's first Territorial Governor. In 1903 he became presiding judge of the U.S. District Court for Hawaii where he served for 12 years until retiring at age 72. Following ten more years of charitable works, he died in 1926. General John J. Pershing (1860-1948) Born in Missouri, John Pershing spent his life in the military. He graduated from West Point in 1886 and was commissioned second lieutenant of cavalry. He fought in the Indian Wars, commanded an all-black unit for a time, taught at West Point, and served as a military observer during the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. He spent nearly a decade in the Philippines and then was sent to Mexico to apprehend Pancho Villa in 1914. In 1917, Pershing was selected to lead the American Expeditionary Force to Europe during World War I. Pershing did not agree with French and British officers who sought to incorporate the U.S. troops into their units. Pershing insisted that Americans fight together. His troops were instrumental in the defeat of the Germans in the Argonne Forest, in the Meuse-Argonne region of France. Alvin York (1887-1964) Known as the greatest [American] hero of World War I, after his platoon had suffered heavy casualties and 3 other noncommissioned officers had become casualties, Cpl. York assumed command. Fearlessly leading 7 men, he charged with great daring a machinegun nest which was pouring deadly and incessant fire upon his platoon. In this heroic feat the machinegun nest was taken, together with 4 officers and 128 men and several guns. York was promoted to Sergeant and received the U.S. Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Cross, the French Croix de Guerre, the French Legion of Honor, the Croce di Guerra of Italy, and the War Medal of Montenegro.