Chapter 21: Acquiring and Managing Global Power

Chapter 21: Acquiring and
Managing Global Power
October 25, 2013
How can the Hamster's actions be interpreted as
Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson
Guiding principle for all three presidents was to
serve the national interest.
◦ Set of goals – political, economic, military, and cultural
that a nation considers important.
◦ “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” – Big Stick Policy
◦ Roosevelt Corollary
 Many countries in the hemisphere were still too weak to
defend themselves.
 U.S. should be the “international police power” to preserve
peace and order in the hemisphere and protect American
 Claimed that his power would help protect weak nations
Taft and Wilson
◦ Dollar Diplomacy – encourage and protect American
trade and investment in Latin America and Asia.
◦ Strong economic presence abroad would advance
American interests.
◦ Moral Diplomacy – based on democratic ideals, rather
than on economic investment or the use of force.
◦ U.S. should use its power to aid “the development of
constitutional liberty in the world.
◦ F.P. based on human rights, national integrity, and
◦ Self – Determination – right of other peoples to
determine their own government, free of outside
Panama Canal
Shortcut between Atlantic and Pacific
1903, U.S. will encourage a revolt in Panama.
◦ Roosevelt sent warships to prevent Colombian
troops from intervening.
Signed a treaty with the new government of
Panama to build the Panama Canal.
◦ Thousands of workers fell prey to tropical
◦ Finished in ten years.
◦ Roosevelt's most important foreign policy
American Interventions
Mexico and Puerto Rico
◦ By 1910, U.S. businesses had invested around $2 billion in
Mexico, buying up land, banks, mines, and other properties.
◦ Revolutions
◦ Pancho Villa cross boarder raids killed numerous
Puerto Rico
◦ After the Spanish American War, it instituted a military
government that began to develop Puerto Rico’s
 Built schools, a postal service, built roads, and improved
◦ Jones Act made Puerto Rico a U.S. territory; Puerto
Ricans became citizens but were not granted all the rights
of citizenship.
Philippines and Hawaii
◦ After Spanish American War; the United States refused to recognize the new
 Fighting breaks out
 U.S. will respond with force, destroying villages, and hearing civilians into
prison camps.
 200,000 Filipinos and 5,000 Americans died
◦ Economy of the islands centered on the export of tropical crops, especially
sugarcane and pineapple.
◦ Wealthy white minority refused to establish a new constitution that gave more
power to native Hawaiians.
◦ 1893, U.S. military forces landed and helped the planters overthrow the queen.
◦ After the revolt the white planters applied to Congress for annexation.
◦ Sanford B. Dole - Dole was named president of the Provisional Government
of Hawaii that was formed after the coup.
 Serving as a friend of both Hawaiian royalty and the elite immigrant
community, Dole advocated the westernization of Hawaiian government and
◦ 1898 Hawaii was annexed.
Spheres of influence in China
 U.S. wanted to prevent foreign
colonization of China in order to maintain
its own access to Chinese markets.
 Secretary of State of John Hay issued the
Open Door Policy – 1899.
◦ Enacted under President McKinley
◦ Called on foreign nations to allow free trade
in China.
Boxer Rebellion