Feudal Monarchies and Political Advancements
From 6th century onward, feudalism serves as the
governing system in Europe
Landlords are ppl who can afford horses and
weaponry to fight
Vassals receive land from the lords in return for
military service, taxes/services, and advice
Charlemagne’s empire was based on feudalism
In France, the Capetian dynasty is formed by Hugh
Capet. They use feudalism to build their empire
In England, feudalism is introduced by William the
Conqueror. William intertwines English lords in
his own feudal system
William uses the aid of “sheriffs” to supervise the
administration of justice throughout his kingdom
similar to Han China
Limited Government
Western Europe remains politically divided
Germany and Italy are split into 3 sections and
ruled by feudal lords
Church limits the power of the political states 
lay investiture
Another limitation of feudalism is that the
aristocratic voice is still heard
King John starts taxing church officials, and pisses
off nobles  leads to the Magna Carta in 1215
 Magna Carta confirms feudal rights over
monarchical rights
 Later in the 13th century, parliament is established
 Compromised of House of Lords, and House of
 Parliament limits power of monarchs by
establishing the tradition of having to consult with
the parliament and vassals before acting
 These ideas spread outside of England and into
France; France establishes the Estates-General:
Those who pray, those who fight, and those who
 Monarchs still view war as being important
 The national monarchies of France and England
fought over territories that the English king
controlled in France.  Hundred Years War
West’s Expansionist Impulse
 Population growth, the recent fall of Rome, and
false security lead Christians to believe they have
the right to expand
 Germanic knights pour into Poland and Germany
 In Spain, Christian forces work to oust the
Umayyad Muslims
 Vikings spread into Greenland, Iceland, and Canada
 Most dramatic expansion was the Crusaders
against the Muslims
 In 1095, Pope Urban II calls for the 1st Crusade.
 Crusaders are fighting for: eternal salvation,
economic riches that the Arab world had to offer,
and lastly the internal conflict which normally kept
knights busy had all but ceased
In 1097, Crusaders assemble in Constantinople and
move west toward Jerusalem. They’re successful
and hold Jerusalem for 100 years before losing it to
3rd Crusade leads to a truce with Saladin—Muslims
keep Jerusalem under their control, but that
Christians have the right to visit their holy place
4th Crusade is a little different. Venetian merchants
ransack Constantinople because its seen as rival to
while the Crusades didn’t necessarily display the
superiority of Christians, it does display their
the Crusades allow W. Europe to be exposed to new
cultural and economic opportunities