chapter 11 review with answers

Name: _____________________
Chapter 11 Review
Directions: Create an outline as a review using the terms below. Do NOT just define terms. You will NOT receive credit if you only define. You must write
EVERYTHING you know on each topic using your notes, the textbook, 5 steps to a 5, and what you remember from our lecture.
Prenatal & Childhood Development
1. Germinal stage
(Zygote) One cell organism formed by the union
of the sperm and egg
from conception to about 2 weeks
Rapid cell division occurs
Forming of placenta occurs (structure that allows
oxygen & nutrients to pass into fetus from the
mothers bloodstream and bodily waste to pass
out to the mother)
2. Embryonic stage
Heart, spine and brain form
Most critical period, most vulnerable
3. Fetal stage
Muscles and bones begin to form in beginning
Sex organs develop in the 3rd month
Respiration and digestive systems mature
A layer of fat is developed
Brain cells multiply in final 3 months
Age of viability is reached (baby may survive if
born premature usually weeks 22-26)
4. Malnutrition
Severe malnutrition linked to birth complications
and neurological problems.
Moderate malnutrition has been linked to
schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in
adolescence and early childhood.
5. Maternal drug use
Both prescribed and illegal drugs are linked to
birth defects…even over the counter drugs
Smoking during pregnancy leads to conduct
6. Fetal alcohol syndrome
Leading cause of mental retardation
Problems include; microcephaly, heart defects,
irritability, hyper activity, delayed motor
movement and mental development. Also related
to suicide, depression and criminal behavior in
Normal drinking may still effect: deficits in IQ,
reaction time, motor skills, attention span, math
skills, antisocial, delinquent behavior.
7. Prenatal health care
Visiting the doctor regularly and receiving the
proper medications from doctors
Higher survival rates and reduced prematurity
A diet rich in folic acid reduces risks of many
birth deficits
Many women who are in poverty do not receive
prenatal care
Cephalocaudal trend
Gain control over the upper part of their bodies
before lower
Proximodistal trend
Children gain control of their torsos before
extremities (reach for things by twisting whole
body rather than just reaching out w/ arm to
Shoulders and arms before hands and fingers
Innate reflexes of an infant
Sucking, stepping, rooting and swallowing
Gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint
Sequence of age related changes that occur as a
person progresses from conception to death
Median age of developmental norms & 95% level
Median age is just a benchmark (25 %)
Should really be focused on the 95% mark
Cultural variations indicate the importance of
experience however; similarities across cultures
outweigh differences illustrating importance of
Cross sectional study
Investigate participants from various ages and
compare them
Longitudinal study
Investigate participants over a long period of
Cohort-effect: occur when differences b/w ages
occur b/c they group up @ different times
Temperament (Thomas, Chess and Birch)
Easy: happy, regular in sleep and eating,
adaptable and not readily upset.
Slow to warm up: less cheery, less regular
in sleep and eating, and slower in adapting
to change
Difficult: glum, erratic in sleep and eating
and resistant to change
Temperament can be stable over time
Temperament can be influenced by social
Inhibited & uninhibited temperament
Inhibited: shyness, timid, wariness of
unfamiliar. High risk of anxiety disorders
Chinese children are more likely to be
inhibited than American children
Uninhibited: less restrained, approaching
unfamiliar with little resistance
Separation anxiety (Mary Ainsworth)
Preference usually towards mother because
she provides reinforcements and food
Attachment: emotional bonds of affection
that develop b/w infants and caregivers.
Higher attachment to mother 6-8 months is
when this preference is shown
Separation anxiety: emotional distress seen
in many infants when they are separated
from people w/ whom they have formed an
attachment. Peaks at 14-18 months then
Secure: play comfortably w/ their mother
present, become visibly upset when she
leaves & quickly calmed by her return
(these children are more curious, have
better relationships with peers and more
Anxious-ambivalent: anxious when mother
is near, protest excessively when she
leaves, not very comforted when she
Avoidant: seek little contact w/ mother and
often not distressed when she leaves
Erik Erikson’s personality stage theory
Each of his 8 stages entails a struggle b/w
two opposing tendencies such as trust vs.
mistrust or initiative vs. guilt.
Jean Piaget cognitive development stage theory
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational, formal operational
Object permanence, egocentrism,
conservation, centration
All children progress through the stages of
cognitive development in the same order
Vygotskys sociocultural theory
Believed interactions w/ parents, teachers
and older children fuel cognitive
Believed culture influenced how cognitive
growth unfolds
Language acquisition plays a crucial role
in cognitive development
21. Kohlberg moral reasoning levels
Moral development is determined by
cognitive development
Look in the textbook at the 6 stages!!!
Preconventional: think in terms of external
authority (rewards and punishments)
Conventional: see rules as necessary for
maintaining social order
Postconventional: here rules are flexible if
they conflict with personal ethics
1. Puberty
Primary and secondary characteristics
In females it is marked by menarche (first
menstruation cycle)
In males it is marked by ejaculation
10-15 for females, 11-16 for males
Growth spurts, 2 years after puberty where
physical and sexual maturity takes place
Secondary & primary characteristics
Secondary: characteristics that differentiate
males and females
Primary: characteristics needed for
Prefrontal cortex
Crucial role in planning organizing,
emotional regulation, response inhibition.
Since this is last area of the brain to fully
mature may explain why risky behavior
peaks during adolescence and then
declines during adulthood
Early vs. late
Early for females (10-15) early for males
(11-16) have greater risk for psychological
problems and social difficulties
Four identity statuses
Foreclosure: premature commitment to a
role prescribed by ones parents
Moratorium: delaying commitment and
engaging in experimentation on w/
different roles
Identity diffusion: lack of direction and
apathy, where a person does not confront
the challenge and commit to an ideology
Identity achievement: arriving at a sense of
self and direction after some consideration
of alternative possibilities
1. Characteristics of the emerging adulthood
18 to 25 yrs old
Subjective: do you feel like you have
reached adulthood?
Age of possibilities: optimism about
persona future
Self-focused: free of commitments
therefore time to explore new opportunities
Still forming identity in this stage, not only
in adolescence
2. Marital satisfaction
Happiest at the beginning of family life
cycle and at the end.
Children tend to decrease marital
satisfaction and declines more with each
child (lower for parents with infants)
3. Empty nest
Empty nest used to decrease marital
satisfaction but now actually increases
marital satisfaction
4. Physical changes
Physical changes decreased women self
Decline in IQ after 60
Vision and auditory changes do not affect
people as much anymore because of
technological advances
5. Cohabitation
People who live together before marriage
tend to have a lower divorce rate (higher
divorce rate in the past)
In the 90’s 60% of couples were
6. 5 stages of dealing with death
Denial, anger, bargaining, depression and
Gender Differences
1. Stereotypes
2. Cognitive abilities
Females better verbal, and grammar skills
Men higher math & science skills in other
parts of the world
Males in grade school show advantage in
visual-spatial skills
3. Social/personality
Women score higher on extraversion,
agreeableness, conscientiousness &
Females more sensitive to nonverbal cues
Females pay more attention to
interpersonal info
Men more aggressive
1. Jean Piaget
2. Erik Erikson
3. Kohlberg
4. Vygotskys
5. Robert Sternberg
6. Carol Gilligan
7. Harry Harlow
8. David Elkind