BLOOD TYPING 1901 - Austrian _____________________ discovered human blood groups. Before this time, blood transfusions were performed, but doctors did not understand why patients _____________ ______________. Blood Type is Controlled by 3 Alleles Alleles: A, B, O A & B are codominant O is recessive Blood Transfusions Blood that has antibodies on it that is not recognized by the body will be attacked by your immune system O is the Universal __________ because a person with this type of blood does not have ____________ on the surface of the blood cells - hence will not cause an immune reaction in the patient. AB is the universal ___________ because this person will not have an immune reaction to ____________________ *The antigens on the surface of your cells (or donated cells) will cause a reaction if your immune system does not recognize them as being part of you. Hence, if you are Type A, and transfused with Type B, your body will mobilize a massive immune response against the "invading" blood. This will cause coagulation of blood and death. AGGLUTINATION (the clumping of ________________________ following a _________________ reaction; likely _____________ Rh Factor (Rh = __________________) A person can have surface Rh antigens (and be Rh +) or no antigens (and be Rh - ) Rh factor is caused by a dominant allele and is inherited like any other trait. Problem: When a fetus is Rh+ and the mother is Rh-, this can cause the mother's immune system to attack the fetus. There are drugs that will suppress this reaction. *This condition is called Erythroblastosis fetalis . Doctors can prevent this reaction by giving the woman ( Rh - ) an injection that will suppress her immune reaction to an Rh + baby. Image Source: http://biology-forums.com/gallery/ Blood Safety Blood can carry ________________ and health care professionals must be careful when working with blood. A bloodborne ____________________ is any disease causing agent that is present in the blood and can be ___________________ from one person to another. Examples of blood borne pathogens: Hepatitis ____ and _____, HIV, and ________________ Testing Your Blood A test kit can be used to test your blood type. It involves pricking your finger and placing a drop of blood on a card that will react to a serum on the card that contains antibodies.