1901 - Austrian _____________________ discovered human blood groups. Before this time,
blood transfusions were performed, but doctors did not understand why patients _____________
Blood Type is Controlled by 3 Alleles
Alleles: A, B, O
A & B are codominant
O is recessive
Blood Transfusions
Blood that has antibodies on it that is not recognized by the body will be attacked by your
immune system
O is the Universal __________ because a person with this type of blood does not have
____________ on the surface of the blood cells - hence will not cause an immune reaction in the
AB is the universal ___________ because this person will not have an immune reaction to
*The antigens on the surface of your cells (or donated cells) will cause a reaction if your
immune system does not recognize them as being part of you. Hence, if you are Type A, and
transfused with Type B, your body will mobilize a massive immune response against the
"invading" blood. This will cause coagulation of blood and death.
AGGLUTINATION (the clumping of ________________________ following a
_________________ reaction; likely _____________
Rh Factor (Rh = __________________)
A person can have surface Rh antigens (and be Rh +) or no antigens (and be Rh - )
Rh factor is caused by a dominant allele and is inherited like any other trait.
Problem: When a fetus is Rh+ and the mother is Rh-, this can cause the mother's immune system
to attack the fetus. There are drugs that will suppress this reaction.
*This condition is called Erythroblastosis fetalis . Doctors can prevent this reaction by giving
the woman ( Rh - ) an injection that will suppress her immune reaction to an Rh + baby.
Image Source:
Blood Safety
Blood can carry ________________ and health care professionals must be careful when working
with blood. A bloodborne ____________________ is any disease causing agent that is present in
the blood and can be ___________________ from one person to another.
Examples of blood borne pathogens: Hepatitis ____ and _____, HIV, and ________________
Testing Your Blood
A test kit can be used to test your blood type. It involves pricking your finger and placing a drop
of blood on a card that will react to a serum on the card that contains antibodies.