Name: ___________________________________________Date: ______________________Block: _________ Chapter 18 – Reading Questions 1. How do we know that we are “in the middle of a 6th mass extinction”? 2. Why would global declines in the genetic diversity of wild organisms be problematic? 3. What do you think is driving a global decline in the diversity of crops and livestock, even as the volumes of crops and meat produced increase? 4. What does it mean for a species to be endangered? Which types of species do you think are most vulnerable? 5. Complete the following chart regarding the major causes of biodiversity loss: How does it threaten Underlying causes? biodiversity? Solutions Habitat Loss Invasive Species Overharvesting Pollution Climate Change 6. What are the major pieces of conservation legislation when it comes to the single-species approach, and what does each of those laws protect? 7. What are the advantages to biodiversity conservation through an ecosystem-based approach instead of a species-based approach? 8. What are the most important characteristics of an effective biosphere reserve? Chapter 18 Vocabulary List Extinction The death of the last member of a species. Sixth mass extinction Inbreeding depression Endangered species A large extinction of species in a relatively short period of time. A genetic phenomenon in which individuals with similar genotypes breed with each other and produce offspring with an impaired ability to survive and reproduce. At serious risk of extinction Habitat Loss Alien species A species living outside its historical range. Invasive species A species that spreads rapidly across large areas. Overharvesting CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) • A 1973 treaty formed to control the international trade of threatened plants and animals. IUCN Red List Endangered Species Act Marine Mammal Protection Act Convention on Biological Diversity Lacey Act Biosphere reserve Habitat corridor A 1973 U.S. act that implements CITES, designed to protect species from extinction. A 1972 U.S. act to protect declining populations of marine mammals. A 1992 international treaty formed to help protect biodiversity. A U.S. act that prohibits interstate shipping of all illegally harvested plants and animals. A protected area consisting of zones that vary in the amount of permissible human impact.