Suggested Processes for Teaching Vocabulary before

Seven-Step Process for Tier 2 and 3 Words
1. Teacher states the word in context
from the text.
2. Teacher asks students to repeat the
word three times.
3. Teacher provides the dictionary
4. Teacher explains the meaning with
student-friendly definitions.
5. Teacher highlights features of the
word: homonym, cognate, tense,
prefixes, etc.
6. Teacher engages students in activities
to develop word/concept knowledge.
1. Weather can have a big effect on your
2. Say effect three times with me and
three more times whispering it.
3. The definition is “the result or
consequence of something.”
4. Windy days have a big, negative, effect
on my allergies.
5. Notice how we spell effect. Spell it
with me. What is its cognate in
Spanish? (efecto)
6. What has had a big effect on your
grades recently? Tell your buddy and
use effect several times as you share.
After a minute ask the following: Who
wants to tell me what your buddy said?
7. Teacher reminds students how this will
7. Remember to use this word in your
be used after reading.
Exit Pass today as you summarize what
you read.
Source: Calderón, M. & Minaya-Rowe, L. (2011). Preventing long term ELs: Transforming schools
to meet core standards.
Four Main Principles for Guiding Vocabulary Instruction
1. Students should be active in developing their understanding of words and ways to learn
2. Students should personalize word learning through such practices as Vocabulary SelfCollection strategy (VSS) (Ruddell, 2005), mnemonic strategies, and personal
3. Students should be immersed in words by rich language environments that focus on
words and draw students’ attention to the learning of words.
4. Students should build on multiple sources of information to learn words through
repeated exposures.
Source: Echevarría, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English
learners: The SIOP Model. Cited: Blachowicz & Fisher (2000)