AP Biology Summer Homework 200 daily points Name____________________________________ Date completed_________________________ This assignment is due the first day of class at the beginning of your class period. Up to one day late is ½ credit. After that, no credit will be given. Write out all answers on paper You may use the Internet and other sources. This website may be helpfulhttp://www.course-notes.org/biology/slides/campbells_biology_8th_edition The textbook that we will be using is Campbell AP Biology 8th edition. This is an individual assignment. Your answers are NOT to be shared with other students. Answer these Biochemistry questions 1. Define compound and list 5 different compounds including formulas. 2. Which 4 elements make up approximately 96% of the human body? 3. List 3 subatomic particles and give the location of each. 4. Define atomic number. Explain the difference between mass number and atomic mass. 5. Define isotope and describe in detail the 3 isotopes of carbon. 6. Give a detailed example of how radioactive isotopes are used in the field of medicine. 7. What determines the chemical activity of an atom? Name and describe the orbitals found in the 2nd energy level. 8. Define covalent bond, molecule, structural formula, molecular formula, electronegativity, nonpolar covalent bond, and polar covalent bond. 9. Draw structural formulas for Cl2, O2, N2, CH4. 10. Define ionic bond, cation, and anion. 11. Use electron dot structures (Lewis structures) to demonstrate ionic bonding between calcium and chlorine. Remember that all atoms must be stable. 12. Define hydrogen bond and demonstrate hydrogen bonding with an example. 13. Why is molecular shape important in biology? 14. Briefly explain the photosynthesis chemical equation. Answer the following questions about the Chemistry of Water. 1. Draw and explain a diagram of hydrogen bonding between 4 water molecules. 2. Define and give an example of cohesion and adhesion. 3. Define and give an example of surface tension. 4. How does water moderate air temperatures (involves specific heat)? 5. Give an example of evaporative cooling. 6. Chemically speaking, why is ice less dense than liquid water? Why is this factor important biologically? 7. Explain how water dissolves salt crystals. Draw a diagram if helpful. 8. Define and give an example of hydrophilic and hydrophobic. 9. Calculate the molecular mass of glucose, C6H12O6. Show your work. How many molecules are in one mole of glucose? Define molarity. Step by step, how would you make a 1 molar solution of glucose? 10. Define acid, base, and pH. [H+] = 1.0 x 10 -8 What is the pH? What is the pOH? Most biological fluids are in the pH range of _______ to _______. Define buffer and explain how buffers work to maintain blood pH. 11. Define acid precipitation. Describe the negative effects of acid precipitation on nature.