Biology Chapter 2 Outline

Biology I Chapter 2 Outline
For graded assessments, you will need to be familiar with the following
atom, nucleus, electron, element, isotope, compound, ionic bond, ion, covalent bond,
molecule, van der Waals forces, cohesion, adhesion, mixture, solution, solute,
solvent, suspension, pH scale, acid, base, buffer, monomer, polymer, carbohydrate,
monosaccharide, polysaccharide, lipid, nucleic acid, nucleotide, ribonucleic acid
(RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), protein, amino acid, chemical reaction,
reactant, product, activation energy, catalyst, enzyme & substrate.
A. What are the subatomic particles that make up an atom? What
inherent charges do they possess? Which of these subatomic particles are
in constant, orbital motion? Review figure 2 – 1 on page 35.
B. There are more than ____________________ known elements but only about
_________________________ are commonly found in living organisms.
C. The main types of chemical bonds are
D. Review figure 2 – 3 and figure 2 – 4 on page 38 and understand the
relationships that exist between atoms sharing an ionic bond versus atoms
sharing a covalent bond.
E. Understand that van der Waals forces are forces of attraction between
molecules in a given system, however, they are not as strong or significant
as ionic or covalent forces of attraction.
A. Unlike most substances, water ______________________________________ as it
freezes; ice is less dense than liquid water and this is why it floats on the
surface of liquid water.
B. Because of polarity, there is a greater probability of finding a covalently
shared electron near the _________________________ atom of a water molecule
(H2O) (page 40)
C. Know why a water molecule is considered polar.
D. Know what a hydrogen bond is.
E. What is capillary action? (page 41)
F. Look at figure 2 – 8 and consider the concept of surface tension as it
relates to cohesion – a property of liquid water.
G. Know the difference between acids and bases. Acids dissociate and
liberate hydrogen ions/protons and bases take up hydrogen
ions/protons in solution. (page 43)
A. Macromolecules are formed by a process known as
B. Be able to list the four groups of organic compounds found in living
things. (page 45)
C. Carbohydrates are used as a
______________________________________________________, and by plants and some
animals for _________________________________________________________________.
D. Distinguish between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
E. Review figure 2 – 14 on page 46 to understand the chemical structure
of a lipid. Lipids are used by biological systems to
______________________________________, to constitute
_________________________________________________ and to impart
__________________________________ coverings.
F. If there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid, the
fatty acid is said to be _________________________________________.
G. What are the functions of nucleic acids?
H. List the functions of proteins given on page 48 in bold.
A. Chemistry is not just what life is made of…it is also what life
B. Chemical reactions always involve changes in the chemical bonds that
C. Understand that energy is released when chemical bonds are broken
and energy is absorbed when chemical bonds are formed.
D. Chemical reactions that release energy occur
____________________________________; reactions that absorb energy will not
occur without an ______________________________________________. (page 50)
E. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place inside
________________________. Review figure 2-20 on page 51 and understand
activation energy.
F. Review pages 52 – 53 and understand the general mechanism of an
enzyme, a substrate and a final product of this facilitated reaction. What
factors are important for these types of biochemical processes to occur?