Naming Ionic Compounds

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Chemistry
Mr. Fedell
Chapter 9 – Naming Chemical Compounds
Ionic Compounds
1.
Metal with Nonmetals
a.
metals are on the left side of the periodic table
b.
nonmetals are on the right side of the periodic table
c.
example:
metal
= Potassium, K
nonmetal = Oxygen, O
d.
Metals lose electrons and nonmetals gain electrons
Examples:
a.
b.
c.
d.
K+ 1 with O  2 = K2O = Potassium oxide
Ca+2 with Cl  1 = CaCl2 = Calcium chloride
Mg + 2 with N  3 = Mg3N2 = Magnesium nitride
Sodium sulfide = Na +1 with S  2 = Na2S
3.
When the metal is a transitional one, then you must use roman numbers to designate the
metal’s oxidation number.
a.
Transitional metals have variable oxidation numbers.
b.
Silver, Ag, always has a +1 oxidation number. Zinc is always +2 (Don’t use
Roman numerals on these two transition metals – it would be redundant)
c.
Lead (Pb) and Tin (Sn) also have variable oxidation numbers.
Examples:
1.
Fe+3 with O  2 = Fe2O3 = Iron (III) oxide
2.
Fe+ 2 with O  2 = FeO = Iron (II) oxide
3.
Copper (I) phosphide
= Cu + 1 with P  3 = Cu3P
4.
Polyatomic ions are used in naming ionic compounds.
Examples:
a.
Ag + 1 with NO3 1 = AgNO3 = Silver nitrate
b.
Zn +2 with NO3  1 = Zn(NO3)2 = Zinc nitrate
c.
Ni +2 with PO4  3 = Ni3(PO4)2 = Nickel (II) Phosphate
d.
Ammonium carbonate = NH4+ 1 with CO3 2 = (NH4)2CO3
Covalent Compounds
1.
2.
3.
We use prefixes when naming covalent compounds.
Covalent compounds are when two nonmetals are bonded together.
Examples:
a.
CO = Carbon monoxide
b.
Sulfur dioxide = SO2
c.
Dinitrogen trioxide = N2O3
d.
CF4 = Carbon tetrafluoride
e.
Phosphorus pentachloride = PCl5
f.
Sulfur hexafluoride = SF6
Acids
Acids – chemicals that start with “H”
2 types - binary and ternary (2 & >2 elements, respectively)
binary - H and one other type of atom
name them
hydro
ic acid
examples – HCl = Hydrochloric acid, H2S = Hydrosulfuric acid
ternary -
Replace the polyatomic endings as follows: -ate  -ic
examples – HClO3 (chloric acid), H\2CO3 (carbonic acid), HNO3 (nitric acid), etc.
Exceptions to ternary naming: H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) & H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)