Naming Ionic Compounds

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1.

2.

3.

4.

3.

1.

Chemistry

Chapter 9 – Naming Chemical Compounds

Ionic Compounds

Metal with Nonmetals a. metals are on the left side of the periodic table b. c. d. nonmetals are on the right side of the periodic table example: metal = Potassium, K nonmetal = Oxygen, O

Metals lose electrons and nonmetals gain electrons

Examples: a. b. c. d.

K

+ 1

Ca

+2

with O

with Cl

Mg

+ 2

2

1

with N

= K

2

O = Potassium oxide

= CaCl

3

= Mg

Sodium sulfide = Na

3

+1

2

N

= Calcium chloride

2

= Magnesium nitride

with S

2

= Na

2

S

Mr. Fedell

When the metal is a transitional one, then you must use roman numbers to designate the metal’s oxidation number. a. Transitional metals have variable oxidation numbers. b. Silver, Ag, always has a +1 oxidation number. Zinc is always +2 (Don’t use c.

Roman numerals on these two transition metals – it would be redundant)

Lead (Pb) and Tin (Sn) also have variable oxidation numbers.

Examples:

1.

2.

3.

Fe

+3

with O

2

Fe

+ 2

with O

2

= Fe

2

O

3

= Iron (III) oxide

= FeO = Iron (II) oxide

Copper (I) phosphide = Cu

+ 1

with P

3

= Cu

3

P

Polyatomic ions are used in naming ionic compounds.

Examples: a. b. c. d.

Ag

+ 1

with NO

3

1

= AgNO

3

= Silver nitrate

Zn

+2

with NO

3

1

= Zn(NO

3

)

2

= Zinc nitrate

Ni

+2

with PO

4

3

= Ni

3

(PO

4

)

2

= Nickel (II) Phosphate

Ammonium carbonate = NH

4

+ 1

with CO

3

2

= (NH

4

)

2

CO

3

Covalent Compounds

We use prefixes when naming covalent compounds.

Covalent compounds are when two nonmetals are bonded together.

Examples: a. CO = Carbon monoxide b. c. d. e. f.

Sulfur dioxide = SO

2

Dinitrogen trioxide = N

2

O

3

CF

4

= Carbon tetrafluoride

Phosphorus pentachloride = PCl

5

Sulfur hexafluoride = SF

6

Acids

Acids – chemicals that start with “H”

2 types - binary and ternary (2 & >2 elements, respectively) binary - H and one other type of atom name them hydro ic acid examples – HCl = Hydrochloric acid, H

2

S = Hydrosulfuric acid ternary - Replace the polyatomic endings as follows: -ate

-ic examples – HClO

3

(chloric acid), H

\2

CO

3

(carbonic acid), HNO

3

(nitric acid), etc.

Exceptions to ternary naming: H

3

PO

4

(phosphoric acid) & H

2

SO

4

(sulfuric acid)

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