A Standards Progression
2.OA. Work with equal groups of objects to gain
foundations for multiplication.
4. Use addition to find the total number of objects
arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and
up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the
total as a sum of equal addends.
3.OA. Understand properties of multiplication and
the relationship between multiplication and
5. Apply properties of operations as strategies to
multiply and divide. Examples: if 6x4 = 24 is known,
then 4x6=24 is also known. (Commutative property
of multiplication.) 3x5x2 can be found by 3x5=15,
then 15x2=30, or 5x2=10, then 3x10-30. (Associative
property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8x5=40 and
8x2=16, one can find 8x7 as
8x(5+2)=(8x5)+(8x2)=40+16=56. (Distributive
4.NBT. Use place value understanding and
properties of operations to perform multi-digit
5. Multiply a whole number of up to four digit by a
one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit
numbers, using strategies based on place value and
the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain
the calculation by using equations, rectangular
arrays, and/or area models.
5.NBT. Perform operations with multi-digit whole
numbers and with decimals to hundredths.
5. Fluently multiply muli-digit numbers using ‘the’
standard algorithm.
How does the idea of multiplication grow across grade
(include contexts, representations, equations, models, and
number size)
How does the work in each grade level
build toward an understanding and
use of the distributive property to
justify strategies?