Chapter 6 Notes Name:____________________________________ Minerals and Rocks Date:__________________ Period:__________ Characteristics of Minerals To be a mineral, a substance must meet ALL 5 of the following criteria: 1. It must be a ___________________. 2. It must occur in _____________________. 3. It must have a definable _______________________ composition (like _________). 4. It must have a _______________________ structure. 5. It must be _______________________. (This means it is not living and never was living.) Properties Used to Identify Minerals Color Streak – the color of the ___________________ left behind when the mineral is scraped across a ___________________plate Luster – the way a mineral ______________________________________ There are 3 types of mineral luster: 1. ___________________________ - bright, reflective 2. ___________________________ - dull, reflective 3. ___________________________ - dull Some terms used to describe luster are: glassy, silky, resinous, ___________, pearly, and ___________. Hardness – measured by ________________ Mineral Hardness Scale which ranks minerals on a scale of ______ to ______ with 1 being the ______________________ and 10 being the ___________________. Density – a measure of how tightly _____________________ together the atoms are in the mineral. Minerals of the same size and shape will have different weights due to differences in density. Mica has a very _______ density of only 2.8 g/cm3 but gold has one of the highest densities measured at about 19.3 g/cm3. Crystal Structure – the way the atoms bond to form the ____________________ that make up specific minerals is different which gives a different overall structure. Diamonds have a ______________ structure but ____________ has an orthorhombic structure. ________________________ Properties - cleavage or fracture Cleavage – the mineral breaks along a _______________ surface or into _______________. Fracture – when a mineral breaks with lots of ______________________ edges. Special Properties – Some properties are particular to only a few types of minerals. Properties such as fluorescence, chemical reactivity, optical properties, magnetism, ______________ and radioactivity. How Minerals are Formed Special Notes and Information: Geodes: For geode formation to occur, a rock must have a _____________ or hollow. Water containing dissolved ________________________________ seep into the crack and ______________________ crystallization occurs, lining the inside. Mineral Veins: A narrow deposit of a ___________________ that is sharply _______________________ from the surrounding _________________ is called a __________________. Concentrated Mineral Deposits: There are processes that can bring minerals together in ____________________ areas and these are called mineral deposits. ____________________________ mineral deposits found in rocks are called _____________ and these are often mined for human use. Rocks The Rock Cycle The rock cycle is a process by which one type of rock is turned into another type of rock.