Name_______________________________ CH 5 Test Review DATE_______________PD____ Key Ideas: The three levels of biodiversity are ecosystem, species and genetic diversity Species richness and species evenness are two different measures of species diversity. The three ways evolution can occur is by artificial selection, natural selection and random processes. Evolution by random processes can occur by mutations, genetic drift, the bottleneck effect and the founder effect. When a species is geographically isolated from other populations, two distinct species can form. Natural evolution is an extremely slow process. Artificial evolution can be incredibly fast. Animals have a set of ideal conditions known as their fundamental niche. As environments change, species can adapt, move or become extinct. Scientists use the fossil record to study species that lived millions of years ago. There have been five manor times when the Earth has experienced mass extinctions. Scientists believe we are in the sixth mass extinction. 1. Who developed the theory of evolution, where did his voyage take him and what are some examples of animals and adaptations that he observed? 2. How do each of the following types of biodiversity support healthy ecosystem function: a. Genetic diversity – b. Species diversity – c. Ecosystem diversity – 3. What is the current estimate for the total number of species on Earth, and why is it so hard to get an accurate count? 4. What is the difference between species richness and species evenness? 5. Explain how genetic diversity is created through evolution: 6. In artificial selection, humans induce evolution in a species over time through our actions. What dictates changes in species in the process of natural selection? 7. List 5 organisms and describe the adaptations that increase their fitness in their environment: d. e. f. g. h. Complete the following chart regarding evolution through random processes: Random Processes: 8. Mutations Description: Effects on genetic diversity? 9. Genetic drift 10. Bottleneck Effect 11. Founder Effect 12. Describe the process through which allopatric speciation can produce new species. 13. How can sympatric speciation occur if the individuals a population are not geographically isolated? 14. Why is the rate of environmental change a critical factor in determining whether or not a species can successfully adapt? 15. How do a population’s size and genetic diversity influence its ability to adapt to change? 16. How do a species’ range of tolerance for various conditions determine its fundamental niche? 17. Why don’t species always use their full fundamental niche? 18. What are some of the major differences between niche generalists and niche specialists? 19. The average lifespan of a species is just 1-10 million years. Why do you think there are such a high rates of speciation and extinction constantly occurring throughout the history of life on Earth? 20. If extinctions are generally a result of changes in the environment that a species is unable to adapt to, what do you think this indicates about the 5 previous mass extinctions and the 6th one occurring now? 21. What ae hotspots and how do they relate to extinction and diversity?