Name:____________________________________ Mods:____________ Date:________________ Evolution of Biodiversity Test Review 1. What is the most significant when determining the diversity of an ecosystem? 2. What a makes a species a species? (Definition for species) 3. Explain how species richness and evenness are used to determine ecosystem diversity. 4. Define evenness and richness. 5. What is the Shannon index? What does it take into account when determining biodiversity? 6. Be able to read and interpret a phylogenetic tree. Who is most closely related? 7. What is evolution? Provide a definition and list the basic components of Darwin’s theory of natural selection. 8. Explain how genetic recombination and mutation can lead to increased genetic diversity. 9. Are all mutations bad? Explain 10. What is the difference between phenotype and genotype? 11. What is artificial selection? Is it an example of evolution? 12. Considering natural selection what determines which organisms live and die? 13. Which two people are credited with developing the theory of natural selection? 14. Define and give examples of the Founder’s effect, bottleneck effect, genetic drift, and geographic isolation. 15. What is the difference between sympatric and allopatric speciation? 16. How do the following impact the rate of evolution? a. Ecosystem disturbance (small scale and large scale) b. Population size c. Genetic diversity d. Generation time 17. Are niche generalists or specialists better able to cope with environmental change? 18. What is the difference between a fundamental and a realized niche? 19. What percent of all species that have ever lived are thought to now be extinct? 20. What is the law of superposition? 21. Describe the series of events that could lead to mass extinction after a hit from a large meteorite. 22. According to the fossil record how has the number of plant and animal genera changed of the last 500 million years? 23. What is the difference between macro and micro evolution? Free Response What are the three levels of biodiversity? Identify and explain factors that increase biodiversity and factors that decrease biodiversity.