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Friedland & Relyea AP Env. Sci. apes ch5 chapter 5 Study Guide by C. Ridley

Honors Ecology/APES CH. 5 SG (Friedland & Relyea)
Pp. 147-182
1. How does the “dung of the devil” plant illustrate the importance of maintaining ALL biodiversity?
2. Define species (p.149-50):
3. What is the current ​estimate​ for how many species inhabit Earth?
4. Distinguish between species richness and evenness in seastar activity.
5. From the phylogenetic tree diagram on p. 153, determine:
a. The most ancient species:?
b. What a branch point is...
c. Which species have a hinged jaw?
d. The only species with mammary glands...
6. Evolution at the species level is called ______________________, while evo. in larger taxonomic categories
is called______________________.
7. Distinguish between genotype and phenotype.
8. Referring to fig. 15-1, how is the phenotype of Daphnia affected (genotype would remain the same) when
they are in the presence of predators?
9. How does a mutation affect a gene, as shown at the left?
10. Name an example of an environmental factor which can cause
11. Most mutations are ___________________, and cause the
offspring to ________:(
12. How does the color mutation in the conures (type of parrot) in fig. 15-2 result in lower survival?
13. ________________diversity can also be created through genetic __________________when a piece of
one ______________breaks off and attaches to another ____________________.
14. What is the term for how humans have caused this:
15. Name 2 other examples of this type of selection:
16. Name 2 unintended effects of artificial selection as related to
pesticides and antibiotics:
17. Define evolution by natural selection:
​18. Natural selection is
synonymous with “
19. The assumptions imbedded in the theory include:
a. More offspring (an excess) are produced than will _________________ in the environment.
b. Individuals differ in their _______________(physical AND behavioral).
c. These differences can be ____________________ from parents to offspring (through DNA).
d. Differences in traits are associated with differences in the ability to _______________and
________________ (the definition of FITNESS!)
20. Traits which improve an organism’s fitness are called _________________________.
21. Evolution can also occur through _______________processes. There are 5 random processes: ______________,
___________________, ___________________,________________, and ____________________.
22. When individuals move from one population (of a species) to another population, they are esentially changing the
________________composition of both populations. This process is called __________ _________.
23. Genetic drift is a change in the _____________ composition of a population as a result of ______________ __________
(or another chance event).
24. When a population undergoes a drastic reduction in size (such as in the black-footed ferrets :( ), this reduces the genetic
_______________in a population, which is called the _________________effect. A population with limited genetic diversity
such as this will be less likely to be able to cope with adverse (harmful) conditions.
25. Name 2 problems which can be caused from low genetic variation:
*Remember that the variety of genes within a pop.
is called ​genetic variation​!
26. From figure 15-8, name a few problems in the Florida panthers which resulted from their low gen. div.:
27. How did scientists try to increase the genetic diversity in the FL panthers?
28. Refer to figure 15-11. How did the bird population on the island change as a result of the founder effect?
29. Geographic isolation can lead to ____________________speciation. An ​example​ of this is:
30. Speciation that occurs ​without a physical barrier​ is ____________________speciation. An example of this is:
31. An example of rapid evolution in a short period of time is seen in the ______________________fishes of Africa.
Evidence indicates that _______species evolved from a single ancestral species.
32. Define GMO:
33. An organism’s role/job in its ecosystem is referred to as its
_____________. The actual set of abiotic conditions under which it
can survive, grow, and reproduce is its _____________________
niche, while the actual observed niche within which it lives is its
___________________niche (remember the barnacle example).
34. Use this diagram on the left and figure 17-1 to write these
categories a. Survive, grow, and reproduce
b. Survive and grow
c. survive
35. Distinguish between a niche generalist and a niche specialist.