STAAR REVIEW -Answer Key

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Adapted from: M. Morrison
Describe with words or pictures
how each of Alexis de
Tocqueville’s five values are
important to U.S. democracy.
3. Populism
—Popular Sovereignty—
People participate in political life—
people rule
4. Egalitarianism
2. Individualism


Free to choose
Little to no government
control
 Laissez-Faire
—Free enterprise—


—Equality—

Society where people are
equal
Land ownership
Social equals


Alexis de Tocqueville said these values
are crucial to America’s success.
Individual controls own interests
No government control over
economy
5. Liberty



Freedom
No overly controlling gov’t
Rule of law
Then, what is the importance of Democratic
Process—Civic Responsibility? “Building a More
Perfect Union”
Lobbying: attempt to influence government officials
Non-violent protest: means of changing injustices
Litigation: resolving disputes in court
 Amendments: official changes made to Constitution
as needed
2
Founding Fathers’ Line-up
1. Explain the significance of these Founding Fathers to the formation of the United States. Create a symbol to
help you remember the last 6 people.
2.
Using the twitter pages from the Moodle Review, who would these Founding Fathers follow and who would
follow them?
Benjamin Rush
John Hancock
“Father of American Medicine” who was a
doctor, teacher and humanitarian who
signed the Declaration of Independence.
Businessman and President of the Continental
Congress. Large signature on Declaration of
Independence symbolized
freedom.
John Jay
John Witherspoon
Favored independence and helped
negotiate a peace agreement with Britain
ending the American Revolution.
Minister who signed the
Declaration of Independence
and supported independence
through education. President of
John Peter Muhlenberg
Charles Carroll
Minister who recruited soldiers to fight against the
British.
Wealthy supporter of independence who financed
the American Revolution.
Jonathan Trumball, Sr.
John Locke
Governor of Connecticut who sided with the colonists
against the British.
English philosopher whose ideas from “Two
Treatises of Government” stated that people were
born with natural rights and a ruler’s power comes
from the people.
George Washington
Thomas Jefferson
Commanded the new Continental Army.
Wrote most of the Declaration of Independence
listing grievances against British
3
Charters of Freedom
Declaration of Independence
Constitution
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with
another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate
and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God
entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that
they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a
more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic
Tranquility, provide for the common defense,
promote the general Welfare, and secure the
Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do
ordain and establish this Constitution for the United
States of America.
Bill of Rights
The Conventions of a number of the States, having at the
time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a
desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its
powers that further declaratory and restrictive clauses
should be added.
Amendment V
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or
otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or
indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the
land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual
service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any
person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in
jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any
criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process
of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use,
without just compensation.
We hold these truths to be self‐evident, that all men are created equal,
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.‐‐That
to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, ‐‐That
whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends,
it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new
Government
In your own words…
ANSWERS MAY VARY
Importance…
ANSWERS MAY VARY
In your own words…
ANSWERS MAY VARY
Importance…
ANSWERS MAY VARY
In your own words…
ANSWERS MAY VARY
Importance…
ANSWERS MAY VARY
4
Principles of the U.S.
Constitution
Checks & Balances—
creates a balance
of power between
Explain these in your own
words or draw an image
that reflects the meaning
Protections of
the Bill of Rights
1
Freedom of
religion
Fill in the
blanks
assembly
3 branches—each branch (legislative,
press
executive, judicial) assigned certain
petition
powers
speech
2
right to bear
arms
Federalism—division of power based on 3 no quartering of troops
location
Federal
4 no unreasonable search
State
and seizure
Local
Separation of Powers—divides
5
government powers into 3 branches
no self-incrimination
no double jeopardy
grand jury
eminent domain. . . the government can
property with just
1. legislative – law-making body
take over
2. executive – executes the law
compensation
3. judicial – judges the law
6
trial by
jury
right to a
lawyer
speedy trial
7
trial by jury (civil cases)
8
no cruel and unusual
Popular Sovereignty—people hold the
9
rights of the people are not limited to
power over government
those in the Constitution
Individual Rights—protected rights of
10 all powers not specified in the Constitution
the people in the Bill of Rights
are given to the
Limited Government—government has
only the powers given in the
Constitution
Republicanism—democratic
punishment
government chosen by the peoplerepresentation
states
5
What was Manifest Destiny? The
belief that the nation was meant to
spread to the Pacific.
What was the
Klondike Gold Rush?
Rush to the Yukon
area to find gold.
How did this change demographic
patterns? Government encouraged
Western Expansion
How did mining impact
western expansion?
Miners would move
hoping to strike it rich
which spread
settlement into new
areas
What role did ranchers
play in western
expansion? (cattle
industry boom) Ranching
caused movement of
cattle to railroad lines
Homestead Act: made land available to settlers. What impact did
this have on settlement of the West? Opened the opportunity
to settlement of the West by settlers desiring land.
Railroads: What impact did the railroad industry have on
settlement? Attracted settlers & business to the West
through transportation connections
Which Railway connected east with the west? Transcontinental
Railroad
Indian Wars: much conflict erupted as settlement pushed westward.
What did the U.S. government do to attempt to solve the conflict?
Farm Issues:




List challenges of the frontier—drought, weather
grasshoppers
Eventual economic problems—low crop yields
Barbed wire impact—conflict between farmers & ranchers
Populists—3rd party movement that tried to address
farmers’ problems



Sent military
Forced removal
Treaties
Explain the Dawes Act: Abolished Native American tribes by
giving each family 160 acres to encourage Americanization
6
What are some
characteristics of the time?
POLITICAL MACHINES



Who was the famous
political boss of Tammany
Hall, NYC?
William “Boss” Tweed
Corruption
Bribery
BUSINESS
 Free enterprise, laissez-faire government
and abundant resources caused —
growth in business



Led to growth of industry / corporations /
trusts / monopolies
Entrepreneurs
o Andrew W. Carnegie - Gospel of
Wealth (philanthropy)
o John Rockefeller – Standard Oil
List workplace abuses—low wages, long
hours, dangerous work
environments, repetitive tasks
o Why was this called the Gilded
Age? wealth for some; poverty
for others
o What was Social Darwinism?
competition in businessstronger would survive
IMMIGRATION






Push factors? poverty, war,
discrimination
Pull factors? freedom, jobs,
opportunity
New immigrants from
southern/eastern Europe
What was nativism? viewpoint that
wanted to restrict immigration
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)—What
was the economic impact?
restricted immigration of Chinese
workers
Social Gospel – Christian value that
motivated social reform efforts (ex.
Salvation Army)
URBANIZATION


Rural to urban-Why did
people move?
Rapid growth brought
problems:
o Overcrowding
o Sanitation problems
o Tenements
o Infrastructure
o Corruption
TECHNOLOGY






Elevator
Telephone/telegraph
Oil drilling
Bessemer Process
Electricity
How did technology impact
business?
improved productivity and
standard of living
7
Instructions: Trace the problems to the reform and then
explain the impact.
Progressive Era
Muckraker
Problem
Economic
Reform

Business regulation:
o Interstate Commerce Act
o Sherman Anti-Trust Act
o Clayton Anti-Trust

Federal Reserve Act 1913—Established the Federal
Reserve System to help with economic issues
 Woodrow Wilson

16th Amendment—Income Tax
 Ida B. Wells
 W.E.B. DuBois
 Elizabeth Cady

NAACP

19th Amendment
Moved nation toward equality
based on gender







Settlement houses
Movement toward social
reform
 Lincoln Steffens


 Robert LaFollette

Initiative—voters can introduce bill
Recall—voters can remove elected
officials
Referendum—voters could seek legislators
to put a bill on a ballot
Direct Primary—used by voters to choose
candidates
17th Amendment—direct elec. of senators
Civil Service Reform— testing to make sure
 Ida Tarbell
1. Monopolies/trusts
Theodore Roosevelt
2. Banks
3. Laissez-faire
government
Social
1. Civil Rights
2. Suffrage
3. Working conditions
4. Living conditions
Stanton
Susan B. Anthony
Jane Addams, Jacob Riis
Booker T.
Washington
5. Consumer safety
Upton Sinclair
wrote —The Jungle
Political
1. Government corruption
2. Amendments




Environment
1. Abuse of natural
resources
What impact did the reform
have?
 Teddy Roosevelt
 John Muir

Education
Meat Inspection Act
Pure Food and Drug Act
Labor Unions — AFL, Knights of Labor
qualified people get govt. jobs
National Park Service Act—established parks &
monuments under federal control
National Park System—supervision &
maintenance of natural parks,
monuments
Increased the federal
government’s ability to
prevent unfair business
activities
Federal government’s
movement toward enacting
monetary policy
Congress could now tax
personal income
Gave a voice to racial equality
Protection of consumer
health
Gave a voice to workers’
rights
Helped end corruption and
increased participation in
democratic process
Conservation of natural
resources by the federal
government
8
American Imperialism
From Isolationism to Expansionism
Why?
Examples:
 Military
 Annexation of Hawaii
o Alfred T. Mahan argued for a strong
o Sandford B. Dole
o Missionaries
Navy in his book “Influence of Sea
Power Upon History”
o Protection of territories
o Refueling ports
o Increase trade
 Economic/Political
o Need for raw materials and
o
o
o
o
markets.
Open Door Policy— U.S. declares
continued trade with China.
Boxer Rebellion
Dollar Diplomacy— Taft’s idea to
give economic support to other
countries.
Roosevelt Corollary of the Monroe
Doctrine— justified sending U.S.
troops to intervene in Central
America.
 Social
o Spread of American institutions
o Missionary zeal
White Man’s Burden
o Military Port
 Commodore Perry opens Japan to trade
 Henry Cabot Lodge and Theodore
Roosevelt pushed for expansionism—
what is that?
Desire to expand territory for
economic, social, or political gain
 How was this different from previous U.S.
foreign policy?
Isolationism was original foreign
policy (neutrality)
 Panama Canal
o Huge undertaking that Theodore
Roosevelt oversaw
o Improved trade and military
movement
o Malaria/challenges of geography
Think About It: How did these events move the U.S. into the position as a
world power? Social, economic and political motives in addition to
acquiring territory moved the U.S. as world power.
9
Who?

U.S. vs. Spain
When?
Where?

1898

Havana, Cuba

USS Maine is sent to Cuba to

San Juan Hill Victory of Rough
Riders led by
Theodore Roosevelt

Philippines
protect U.S. interests

Yellow journalism—Pulitzer and
Hearst newspapers used this
exaggerated form of journalism

Explodes and seen as an
attack on the U.S.
Spanish American War
Review this short war and its impact by filling in the blanks
Why?
USS Maine sinks and
How?

Media—
Yellow journalism increases
support

Land—
U.S. fought Spain in Cuba and
the Phillipines
the U.S. blames
Spain
 DéLome letter calls President
McKinley weak. Americans are
outraged
__________________________

Sea—
U.S. defeats Spain quickly
Significance



U.S. acquired territory from
Spain—Guam, Puerto Rico, and
Philippines
Platt Amendment— U.S. could
intervene in Cuba
What was the result? U.S.
moves into world power

Why is this war considered
a turning point? U.S. began
to have more international
influence
10
Who?
 President Wilson initially declared
 Poison gas
neutrality
 Alliances:
 Tanks
Allies vs. Central Powers
 American Expeditionary Forces


Effects of Technological
Innovations
Technological Innovations?
(AEF) led by John J. Pershing
Argonne Forest one of the most
famous battles (1918)because it
shattered the German defenses
Alvin York won the
Congressional Medal of Honor
Western Front— hundreds of miles
of battle front along eastern France
Trench warfare … led to a
 Machine guns
Stalemate led to …
 Airplanes
Massive casualties
When? 1914-1918

Another
Turning
Journalism—Pulitzer
and Hurst
Point!
newspapers
used this exaggerated
World War I—Why is this a Turning Point?
form of journalism
Causes?
Militarism:
Alliances:
Imperialism
Nationalism:
build-up of
military
joining forces
with countries
with similar
ideology
exercising
control over
another nation
extreme loyalty
to your nation
 Assassination of —
Reasons for United States
Entry
When 1917
Significance

Treaty of Versailles—
Germany reparations and accept
guilt
Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points
created League of Nations




Great Migration

Selective Service Act
Lusitania is sunk
Germany’s unrestricted
submarine warfare
Ties to Allies
Zimmerman Telegram
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
U.S. returns to isolationism
International instability
Espionage Act of 1917/Sedition
Act restricted freedom of speech
11
The Roaring Twenties
(The Great American Mullet)
Instructions: Fill in the importance of each of the following:
“Business in the Front”
“Change in the Back”
POLITICAL
 “Return to Normalcy” — President Harding’s
SOCIAL—modernism v. traditionalism
Adventure—
reduced role of U.S. government / laissez-faire
o Charles Lindbergh—1st person to fly the
policies
Harding & Teapot Dome Scandal
18TH Amendment—Prohibition of Alcohol
19th Amendment— women’s right to vote
21st Amendment—repealed prohibition
ECONOMIC
$Economic Boom—How did these impact the
Economy?
$Mass Production/Assembly Line-allowed faster,
less costly means of production
$Henry Ford—built first
affordable cars on a large scale
$Laissez-Faire-little government
regulation led to rapid growth in
business
$Buying-on-Credit-allowed consumers to
purchase goods and to pay in installments;
increased buying
SOCIAL
o Red Scare/Sacco-Vanzetti—reflected nativist
feelings related to anti-communism
o Growth of nativism-after WWI, increased fear led
to Red Scare
o Immigration Quota/Citizenship Act of 1924restricted immigration from Southern/Eastern
Europe
o Eugenics-desire to restrict certain groups;
driven by nativism (Racism by science)
o Great Migration influenced culture-movement of
African Americans to large urban areas for jobs
o Social Darwinism-survival of the fittest applied
to society and business
Atlantic Ocean
o Glenn Curtiss — Aviation Pioneer that
was 1st to design seaplane that could
take off and land on water
Changing Role of Women—
o Flappers-greater independence
o Frances Willard — Temperance Movement
o Women’s Rights Movement
Cultural Values—
o Prohibition Organized Crime-increased
o Scopes “Monkey” Trial— clash between
traditionalism and modernism over
teaching evolution.
Clarence Darrow
William Jennings Bryan
Art, Music & Literature
o Jazz Age – birth of new music-awakening
of African American Culture
o Harlem Renaissance
Langston Hughes-literature
Marcus Garvey-political activist
o Tin Pan Alley—NYC area that mixed
culture and music to form new pop
music
o Lost Generation —F. Scott Fitzgerald,
The Great Gatsby; Ernest Hemingway;
Sinclair Lewis-captured the spirit of
change in the 20s with new values
12
Great Depression to New Deal
America’s Road to Recovery
1920’s
Review this information by completing the blanks and questions.
1930’s
1929
Warning Signs—
 Overproduction
 Speculation and buying on margin
 Buying on credit
 Bad banking practices
 Federal trade policies
What was Black Tuesday?
Day in 1929 when stock prices fell to all-time lows and led to stock
market collapse
Immediate reactions—
 People who invested in stock market couldn’t repay loans
 Bank runs/failures
 Reduced demand for goods/unemployment
Hoover—
 Rugged individualism
 Believed government involvement should be limited
 Reconstruction Finance Corp.
 Mexican Repatriation Act— Hoover passed act to send Mexican
American immigrants to their home country
 Hoovervilles
Effects of the Great Depression—no safety net at the time
 Widespread unemployment
 Business failures
 Foreclosures
 Homelessness – hobos
 Americans looked to government to solve economic problems
Dust Bowl—
 Where? area of the Great Plains
 Why? periods of drought, over-production of soil, winds
 Impact? economic disaster that destroyed harvests and farms
 Dorothea Lange—photographer who captured the difficulties
FDR is elected (1932)—
 Promised a New Deal- turning point in government involvement in the
economy
 “Fireside Chats” reassured Americans
 Eleanor Roosevelt —political activist
 Frances Perkins – 1st female U.S. Cabinet member as Secretary of Labor
New Deal provided—
 Relief—bank holiday—CCC, PWA, WPA, (Alphabet Soup) programs
 Recovery —support production
 Reform—FDIC; Security Exchange Commission; Social Security Act
Opposition—
 A number of people were critical of FDR’s New Deal including constitutional challenges
that the federal government was overstepping its power
FDR’s Court-packing—
 FDR plan to add appointed justices to the Supreme Court to vote in favor of New Deal
 Viewed as challenge to separation of powers
New Monetary Policy—
 Moved from gold standard to fiat (paper) money to expand money supply and stimulate
economy
13
FDR’s NEW DEAL
Instructions: What is important about the following—
Relief
Recovery
Reform
(Short-term)
(Stimulus)
(Systematic)
Is like — a band-aid
Is like — a cast
Is like — prevention
Bank Holiday: closed all
nation’s banks to stabilize
and restore consumer
confidence
National Recovery
Administration: federal program
that set prices and production
controls plus a minimum wage
Social Security Administration:
workers/employers pay into
system that provides support for
the unemployed and elderly
Emergency Mortgage Loans:
Securities & Exchange
Commission: organized to
Agricultural Adjustment
oversee the stock market and
Administration: paid farmers to prevent corruption
plant fewer crops; government
also bought overages
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.:
insures bank deposits up to
$250,000
to support business and
consumers
Work Relief Programs:
CCC;PWA; WPA hired
workers for federal
projects
Tennessee Valley Authority:
Decreased
spending
Decreased
wages
Unemployment
Increased
spending
Increased
employment
Increased
wages
All of these
are in effect
today!
14
June 6, 1944,
D-Day
Invasion
Aug.1945
Atomic bombs
dropped

Dec.7,
1941 Pearl
Harbor
attacked
European Theatre
American Home Front: Isolationism to War
Neutrality Acts/Lend Lease Act—early U.S.


1942 Battle of
Midway
Pacific Theatre
Hideki Tojo—military leader of Japan; prime
minister during Pearl Harbor Attack
Flying Tigers—volunteer U.S. pilots who
supplied China
Bataan Death March—U.S. prisoners forced
by Japanese on 60 mi. march in Philippines
Island-Hopping—military strategy of
liberating islands from Japan
Navajo Code Talkers—group of military who
used Navajo language to code communication
Chester Nimitz— U.S. Pacific fleet
commander; instrumental in stopping Japan’s
advance
Douglas Macarthur— commanded U.S. Army
in the Pacific
George Marshall—acted as Chief of StaffArmy; worked with FDR regarding
military/strategy
Battle of Midway—turning point in war in
Pacific
Atomic bombs dropped—Hiroshima &
Nagasaki; war ends
attempts to remain neutral/support Britain
Roosevelt—president during WWII; initially
supported internationalism until Pearl Harbor
Appeasement—attempt to prevent conflict by
giving in to demands; ex. Germany
Pearl Harbor—U.S. enters war after Japan
executes surprise attack on naval base
Executive Order 9066 + Internment Camps—
wartime fear resulted in internment of
Japanese Americans; raised constitutional
issues
Office of War Information + Propaganda—
government organization that supported war
effort; posters, radio programs, conservation
War bonds, rationing, victory gardens—efforts
to economically support the war
Volunteering/patriotism—government
encouraged citizens to support/sacrifice
Enlist—Selective Service/Training Act provided
build-up of armed forces in 1940; recruits
known as GIs
Mobilization—gathering military equipment &
personnel to support war effort
Vernon J. Baker—received Congressional Medal
of Honor for courage in Europe
U.S. entry—FDR asks Congress to declare war
Dec. 8, 1941
Adolf Hitler—Nazi leader of Germany;
extreme nationalism; wanted Europe
Benito Mussolini—fascist leader of Italy
Joseph Stalin—established totalitarian
dictatorship in Soviet Union
Dictatorship—weak economic and political
factors following WWI allowed dictators to
seize power
Aggression—German invasions Poland, etc.;
Italy built-up military; Japan seized much
territory in Asia
Winston Churchill—prime minister of Great
Britain; defiantly defended Britain
Fascism—aggressive nationalism; expansion
of territory
George Patton—commanded U.S. forces
invading N. Africa/Sicily
Dwight Eisenhower—Supreme ALLIED
cOMMANDER in Europe
Omar Bradley—Americancommander of DDay invasion of Omaha and Utah beaches,
coast of France
D-Day Invasion & Normandy—largest
amphibious operation that moved Allies
eastward to German strongholds
Tuskegee Airmen— African American fighter
pilot group that served with distinction;
paved way for military integration
Holocaust—Nazi murder of nearly 6 million
Jewish people
Liberation of concentration camps— as Allies
advanced into Europe, U.S. Army units were
some of the 1st to report camp atrocities
15
A Battle of Ideology
Political Characteristics:


representative
government
multi-party system

protected freedoms—
COLD WAR
Who was
involved?
Economic
Characteristics




free enterprise system
private ownership of
property
supply & demand set
prices
limited government
involvement
Political Characteristics:



communist government
one political party
restricted freedoms
Economic Characteristics:
United States/
Western Europe
U.S.S.R.
(Soviet Union)



communist economy
no private property
government controls
industry
U.S. Responses: Add the significance of each.
Truman Doctrine — support any country fighting
Soviet Responses: Add the significance of each.
Containment Policy prevent the spread of communism
Marshall Plan —economic support given to countries in
alliance to defend each other
communism
Europe
NATO/Collective Security —U.S., Canada, & 10 Western
European countries pledged to defend each other
against communism
Domino Theory —intervention in areas that could fall
to communism
Eisenhower Doctrine —containment policy in the
Middle East
Warsaw Pact— Soviet Union and Eastern European
Satellite Nations —communist countries of Eastern
Europe
Iron Curtain — phrase used by Churchill to describe
the division Western and communist Eastern Europe
Berlin Wall — built by the Soviet Union to cut off East
Berlin from democratic West Berlin
16
UNITED STATES
How did life change?
Space Race—increased funding
for education & space program
Education Priorities—math,science
Moon-Landing—continued
advancement of science
Arms Race—acceleration of
defense spending
Red-Scare—fear of communism
led to internal security issues
HUAC—Congressional committee
formed to investigate disloyalty
Joseph McCarthy senator who led
harsh accusations against
Americans as a fear of
communism
Rosenberg Trials—reflected fear
of communist spies; couple
charged with spying and executed
Venona Papers—revealed
identities of communist spies
including Julius Rosenberg
Détente—foreign policy of Nixon
which relaxed tension with Soviet
Union using diplomacy
Star Wars—name given to
Reagan’s SDI program to defend
U.S. against Soviet missiles
Presidents’ Views?
Truman—containment
Eisenhower—domino theory
/brinkmanship
Kennedy—flexible response
Johnson—domino theory
Nixon—détente/normalization
Ford—détente
Carter—negotiation/human rights
Reagan—Reagan Doctrine
Bush—End of the Cold War
Europe
SOVIET UNION
Marshall Plan-
economic support for rebuilding
of war-torn European countries
Berlin Airlift-Western countries
support of West Berlin during
Soviet blockade
Berlin
Wall- kept East Germans from
Sputnik—1957
TURNING POINT! Ignites Space Race
Arms Race-buildup of weapons
between U.S. & Soviet Union
Breakup of U.S.S.R.1991
West Berlin
China
Mao Zedong — What happened in
1949?
China became communist
Korean War
Containment
Reasons: communist
North Korea invaded
democratic South Korea; U.S.
intervened
Outcomes: halted North
Korean aggression
Vietnam—What was the importance of each?
Domino Theory—supported U.S. involvement against
CUBA
Fidel Castro—Which form of government?
Communist supported by Soviet Union
Bay of Pigs Invasion—Why? U.S., supported
Cuban exiles attempted to overthrow Castro
which failed; seen as a foreign policy failure
Cuban Missile Crisis—What happened? Soviet
missiles in Cuba -Kennedy ordered a naval
blockade. After several days of tension, Soviet
Union removed the weapons. Kennedy
removed U.S. missiles from Turkey
communist North Vietnam’s takeover of South Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution— Congress voted to give Johnson
power to militarily stop North Vietnam’s aggression
Escalation/combat— Johnson increased troop commitment
following Gulf of Tonkin; challenges of combat
Roy Benavidez— received Congressional Medal of Honor for
valor in rescuing wounded platoon members
Tet Offensive— massive attack by Vietcong which led to antiwar movement sentiment
Anti-War Movement—discontent about war caused by Tet
Offensive, credibility gap, and drawn out conflict
Vietnamization— Nixon’s policy to withdraw U.S. troops while
attempting to negotiate peace & give S.Vietnamese control.
Fall of Saigon—North Vietnam took over South Vietnam in
1975; country united under communism
War Powers Resolution—set limits on President’s powers to
17
commit U.S. troops in a conflict
1950’s Conformity
Post-War prosperity led to economic growth for many Americans and
pursuit of the American dream.
What caused this
prosperity?
Baby Boom —
What was the impact?
Housing Boom
increased number of
babies born following
WWII provided economic
boom
Growth of the—
suburbs
What impact did this have?
 increased demand for
Transportation—
Interstate Highway Act
supported economic
expansion

Migration
Moved South and West
Business Growth —
Franchises (McDonalds)
Communication (TV)
Levittown
Increased consumption/spending
Economic prosperity
More leisure time
Science —
Polio & Measles vaccine
Advances in surgery
GI Bill/Servicemen’s
Readjustment Act
provided—
Low cost mortgages
Money for college
homes and goods; growth
of suburbs
increased education; job
opportunities
Fear of Communism
”E Pluribus Unum” motto
meaning—out of many
comes one—became official
in 1956
“In God We Trust” national
motto adopted in 1956
Religious resurgence—
Growth of churches
Non-Conformist Ideas
Beat Generation
Pop Culture—
Rock & Roll
Jack Kerouac
Rebelled against
conformity
1950’s
18
INSTRUCTIONS:
Review the events by
providing the
importance of each.
Legislation/Landmark
Court Cases
Civil War Amendments:
 13th —abolished slavery

14th —granted citizenship to
all persons born in U.S.

15th — gave African American
men the right to vote
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) —
established the constitutionality
of “separate-but-equal”
Mendez v. Westminster (1947) —
court stated Hispanic students
could not be segregated in
California
Executive Order 9981, (1948) —
abolished segregation in the
military (Truman)
Delgado v. Bastrop I.S.D. (1948) —
Texas case that ruled
segregation of Hispanic students
illegal
Sweatt v. Painter (1950) —
Supreme Court decision against
UT for establishing a separate
law school for African Americans
Legislation (cont.)
Hernandez v. Texas (1954) —
stated that Hispanics could not be
excluded from juries
Brown v. Board of Education
(1954) — ruled segregation in
public schools illegal
Civil Rights Act of 1957 —
Eisenhower’s effort to expand
voting rights for African
Americans
Civil Rights Act of 1964 —
prohibited discrimination based
on race, color, religion, or
ethnicity in the workplace
24th Amendment —
(prohibited poll taxes in federal
elections)
1965 Voting Rights Act — ended
poll taxes and literacy tests to
prevent discrimination in voting
practices
Affirmative Action (1965) —
increased minority representation
in colleges some businesses
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby (1984) —
court ruled Texas must revise its
school funding system
Events
Founding of NAACP (1909)—W.E.B.
DuBois —
Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-56)—
year- long protest over segregated bus
system in Montgomery, Alabama
Little Rock Nine (1957) — 9 African
American students who were escorted
by federal troops to Central High
School to enforce integration
Sit-Ins (1960-61) — peaceful protests
against segregated lunch counters
Freedom Rides (1961)— efforts to end
segregation on public transportation
by interracial groups riding buses
James Meredith (`1962)— federal troops
sent to support integration of
University of Mississippi
Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963)-
outlined Dr. King’s views on civil
disobedience as means to enact change
March on Washington (1963) —
MLK gave his famous “I Have a Dream”
speech
Selma March (1965) — protest march
for voting rights that helped gather
support for Voting Rights Act of 1965
because of white violence
19
Civil Rights Movement
INSTRUCTIONS: Review the different approaches and leadership of various reform efforts by completing
the organizer
Hispanic
American
African Americans
Women
Americans
Indian
Martin Luther King,
Jr.
Civil Disobedience —
peaceful protest
of unjust laws
Influenced by —
 Gandhi
Gathered widespread
support by —
 speeches

writings

peaceful protests
Famous
Quotes/Speeches


“I Have a
Dream”
Malcolm X
Black Panthers
Views —
 questioned the
views of Dr.
King and
became a
symbol of black
power
movement
along with
Stokely
Carmichael
Views —
 believed a
revolution was
needed to gain
equal rights
Influenced by —
 Nation of Islam
which
advocated black
nationalism

later broke
away from the
organization

more militant
Assassinated 1965
National Organization
for Women (NOW)
 formed in 1966
to promote
women’s rights
Gloria Steinam —
Ms Magazine
Community –based
political
organization—
 attempted to
provide
greater local
opportunities
for African
Americans
Letter from a
Birmingham jail
Turning Point —
o Assassinated 1968
Betty Friedan
wrote — The
Femine Mystique
Leaders—
 Huey Newton

Eldridge
Cleaver
Roe v. Wade (1973)
legalized —
abortion
Equal Pay Act —
 required equal
pay for equal
work
Title IX (1972) —
 banned
discrimination
against females
in educational
institutions
Cesar Chavez and
Dolores Huerta
led the United —
Farm Workers
(UFW)
o
Boycotts
Hector P. Garcia
started GI Forum
for —
Veterans
rights.
LULAC —
 League of
United Latin
American
Citizens created
to fight
Hispanic
discrimination
La Raza Unida —
 political party
organization in
Texas to
mobilize
Hispanic voters
Chicano Mural
Movement —
 art work to
promote
Hispanic culture
during 1960s
American Indian
Movement (AIM) —
 attempt to call
attention to
Native
American
discrimination

Alcatraz

Wounded Knee
Introduced term
Native American
and
brought attention to
discrimination and
bias
20
Winds of Social Change (1960’s)

Connect the kite with the correct photo and then add a caption

Then complete the information in each kite.
Domestic Program
War on Poverty
Programs created to give economic opportunity
—Medicare/Medicaid helped the elderly and poor
access health care
—Head Start/Child Nutrition Act
Programs were costly/expanded role of government
Miranda v. Arizona
Immigration Act of 1965
DOVES
HAWKS
Credibility gap —lack of trust caused by differences
seen between reality of war and government
statements
Pentagon Papers —revealed government officials
questioned war while publicly supporting it
Draft —caused anti-war sentiment
26t h Amendment — lowered voting age to 18
Role of the media— presented reality of war
Silent Majority— citizens who supported Nixon but
were not outspoken
21
Report Card on the 1970s Presidents
President
Example:
Nixon-R
Nixon
Describe the topic or event
Détente
Nixon’s foreign policy to relax Cold War tension with the Soviet Union
and China through diplomacy
Give them a
Grade
A
Normalization in Relations with China
Foreign policy designed to open communication with China by restoring
diplomatic relations
Nixon
First Amendment Rights
Tinker v. Des Moines (1968): 1st Amendemt free speech case supporting
students’ rights to wear anti-war armbands Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972):
Amish parents freedom of religion protected against state requirement
for school attendance
Nixon
Nixon
Environmental Protection Act (EPA) / Endangered Species Act
Environmental Protection Act (EPA): Law that sets air/water pollution
standards Endangered Species Act: Protection of plants/animals that
face extinction
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Approved by Congress in 1972 but not ratified by the states
Nixon
War Powers Act
Set limits on presidential power to commit U.S. troops in a conflict
without Congress’ approval
Nixon
Fall of Saigon
Following U.S. withdrawal, North Vietnam took over South Vietnam and
united the country under communism
Nixon
Watergate Scandal
Political scandal that began with a break-in at Democratic Party
headquarters; escalated into a Nixon cover-up, included Oval Office
tapes; ended with Nixon’s resignation
Ford-R
Pardon of Nixon
Effort to put the Watergate Scandal behind by pardoning Nixon angered
some Americans
Carter-D
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Formed by oil producing countries in 1960 to manage global oil prices
Department of Energy
Organized to deal with the oil crisis
Carter
Community Reinvestment Act
Required banks to offer loans in all communities to support inner city
restoration
Carter
Panama Canal Treaty
Agreement resumed control of the Canal Zone to Panama with full
control of canal given by 2000
Carter
Camp David Accords
Historic peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel
Carter
Iran Hostage Crisis
American hostages taken in Iran by students angry over U.S. support of
the Shah and for supporting Israel
22
Ronald Reagan
George Bush
Republican (1981-1989)
Republican (1989-1993)

 What is significant about the
Supported by social conservatives
—Phyllis Schlafly, led opposition to
ERA

Won using conservative ideas
(remember Goldwater 1964) and
optimism

What was Reaganomics? Reagan’s
economic policy which included tax cuts and
reduced business regulations to help increase
supply of products (supply-side economics)

What was “Peace through Strength”?
Americans with Disabilities Act?
Landmark legislation which made it illegal to
discriminate against those with disabilities
 What signifies the end of the Cold
War? The Soviet Union moved from
communism to democracy and the Berlin Wall
was torn down
o
Soviet Union dissolved - 1991
Foreign policy which increased military
spending as a means to prevent conflict

When? Berlin Wall torn down – 1989
How was the U.S. involved in the IranContra Affair? U.S. officials secretly sold
TURNING POINT
weapons to Iran and then profits were sent to
support anti-communist “contra” rebels in
Nicaragua.

Why were U.S. Marines in Lebanon?
To restore order during conflict between
Christians and Palestinians – U.S. Military
barracks were bombed

Appointed Sandra Day O’Connor first
woman to U.S. Supreme Court (1981)
Moral Majority
 Why did the U.S. get involved in the
Persian Gulf War? Leader of Iraq, Saddam
Hussein, invaded Kuwait for its oil wealth
 People moving from Rust Belt region
to the Sunbelt region
Heritage Foundation

Conservative lobby group

Conservative think tank

Formed by television
evangelist Jerry Falwell

Promoted free enterprise,
civil rights, limited
government and strong
national defense

Opposed ERA
National Rifle Association

After assassinations in the
1960s the Gun Control Act
of 1968

NRA became more active
and was a conservative
political group supporting
2nd Amendment Rights
23

Bill Clinton
1993-2001
Attempted health care reform with
Hillary Clinton leading task force – did
not pass Congress
George W. Bush
2001-2009
Financial Crisis of 2008 led to—
Home foreclosures
Fear of financial failures
 Supported welfare reform, lower taxes, Emergency Economic Stabilization Act
Economic
Issues 
GATT — Changed to World Trade
Organization

NAFTA— impacted trade in N. America

Ross Perot —3rd party candidates can
impact elections

Political
Issues
and stricter crime prevention measures (2008) gave billions of dollars to prevent
banks and businesses from failing



Gore won popular vote; Supreme
Court stopped Florida recount
giving Bush the electoral college
win
 2001 Terrorist Attack —Turning Point
World Trade Center and Pentagon
attacked by al-Qaeda; Bush
launched a war on terror
 American Recovery and Reinvestment
Act of 2009 gave economic stimulus
$700 billion spent by federal
government to support economy
 Banking and credit reform
Legislation to support credit card
and lending practices
 2008 Election Turning Point – First
African American President
Contract with America was supported by
most Republicans proposed by Newt
 U.S. Patriot Act created to give Gov’t  Affordable Care Act— Healthcare
reform designed to make health
Gingrich, Republican Speaker of the
expanded power to conduct security
care available to Americans
House
measures following 9/11
Balkan Crisis— Ethnic tension caused  War on Terror: Iraq— U.S. troops
deployed when Hussein was
 Appointed Sonia Sotomayor 1st
conflict in the Balkans; Clinton sent
thought to have weapons of mass
Hispanic American to U.S. Supreme
troops which led to a compromise
destruction Afghanistan—
Court
Scandal led to impeachment (formal
accusation) by the House of
Representatives
Social
Issues
 2000 Election — What was unique?
Barack Obama
2009-2017
Senate
vote did not remove the
president
U.S. troops deployed to find
terrorists
 No Child Left Behind was created to
promote educational reform by
testing students in English and Math
 Hurricane Katrina caused by natural
disaster and human factors (levee
failure, delayed rescue)
 Appointed—
Hillary Clinton
as Secretary of State
 Influence of Oprah Winfrey — Publicly
endorsed President Obama during
election over Hillary Clinton
24
Technological Innovation
How have these improved business and
American’s standard of living?
Globalization
How have these encouraged
globalization?
Business Marketplace
How does free enterprise impact the
creation of discoveries in the U.S.?


Satellites— global communication

Cell phones— widespread communication

Internet— world-wide connection has
improved communication
usage

Personal computers— made computers

more accessible/affordable to consumers

Growth of multi-national corporations—
products sold world-wide by large
businesses
Robotics— increased workplace
Profits drive innovation
What contribution have these
entrepreneurs made to the United
States?

Bill Gates— Microsoft founder

Sam Walton— established Wal-Mart
and supercenter concept
productivity

Just-in-time inventory management—
eliminated need for large inventories and
thus improved cost efficiency


Energy needs— increased populations
and standards of livng have increased
energy demand
Information technology— increased

Esteé Lauder— founded cosmetic
company

Lionel Sosa— Hispanic advertising
businessman; advised presidents
productivity in the workplace


Genetic engineering— improved medicine
through study of diseases at the
chromosomal/gene level
American culture— Entertainment and
demand for goods have risen and
diffused U.S. political, economic, & social
culture

Robert Johnson— African-American
who started BET

Oprah Winfrey— African-American
woman who built a television empire
25
Can I quote you on that?
American Imperialism
Progressive Era
“But today we are raising more than
we can consume. Today we are
making more than we can
use…There are more workers than
there is work. We do not need more
money – we need more circulation,
more employment. Therefore, we
must find new markets for our
produce, new occupation for our
capital, new work for our labor…” –
Senator Albert J. Beveridge, 1898
“…In the barrels would be dirt and
rust and old nails and stale water—
and cartload after cartload of it
would be taken up and dumped into
the hoppers with fresh meat, and
sent out to the public's breakfast.
Some of it they would make into
"smoked" sausage—but as the
smoking took time, and was
therefore expensive; they would call
upon their chemistry department,
and preserve it with borax and color
it with gelatin to make it brown. All
of their sausage came out of the
same bowl, but when they came to
wrap it they would stamp some of it
"special," and for this they would
charge two cents more a pound.” –
The Jungle, Upton Sinclair
How does this passage relate to the
topic of American Imperialism?
ANSWERS MAY VARY
What impact did this book have on
American society?
What might someone say if they
opposed the point‐of‐view in the
above passage?
ANSWERS MAY VARY
ANSWERS MAY VARY
World War I
World War II
Civil Rights Movement
“I object in the strongest possible
way to having the United States
agree, directly or indirectly, to be
controlled by a league [of nations]
which may at any time…,be drawn in
to deal with internal conflicts in
other countries…We should never
allow the United States to be
involved in any internal conflict in
another country.” – Senator Henry
Cabot Lodge
“…The Director of the War
Relocation Authority is authorized
and directed to formulate an
effectuate [implement] a program
for the removal, from the areas
designated from time to time by the
Secretary of War or appropriate
military commander under the
authority of Executive Order No.
9066 of February 19, 1942, of the
persons or classes of persons
designated under such Executive
Order, and for their relocation,
maintenance, and supervision…” –
Executive Order 9102, 1942
“One may want to ask: ‘How can you
advocate breaking some laws and
obeying others?’ The answer lies in
the fact that there are two types of
laws: just and unjust. I would be the
first to advocate obeying just laws.
One has not only a legal but a moral
responsibility to obey just laws.
Conversely, one has a moral
responsibility to disobey unjust laws.
I would agree with St. Augustine that
"an unjust law is no law at all.” –
Letter from Birmingham Jail, Martin
Luther King Jr.
In your own words…
In your own words…
#14: “A general association of
nations must be formed.” –
Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points
In your own words…
ANSWERS MAY VARY
ANSWERS MAY VARY
How are these documents related
to the words – isolationism and
neutrality?
What constitutional issues are
raised by the passage of Executive
Order 9066?
ANSWERS MAY VARY
ANSWERS MAY VARY
ANSWERS MAY VARY
What impact did this letter have on
the Civil Rights Movement?
ANSWERS MAY VARY
26
Great American Quilt
Directions: For each quilt square, add the time period or era and then any historical information you know.
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
INDUSTRIALISM
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
INDUSTRIALISM
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
INDUSTRIALISM
THE FRONTIER (WESTERN EXPANSION)
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
IMPERIALISM
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
THE 20s
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
INDUSTRIALISM
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
THE FRONTIER (WESTERN EXPANSION)
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
THE 30s—GREAT DEPRESSION
27
Great American Quilt
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
IMPERIALISM
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
WWI
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
THE 30s—GREAT DEPRESSION
COLD WAR
PROGRESSIVES
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
THE 30s—GREAT DEPRESSION
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
WWII
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
COLD WAR
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
28
Great American Quilt
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
COLD WAR
COLD WAR
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
COLD WAR
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
THE 60s—VIETNAM
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
THE 70s
ANSWERS
MAY VARY
21st CENTURY
21st CENTURY
29
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