SBI4U: Exam Review Questions All of the answer to these exam review questions can be found in your notes. Please email me if there are any questions for which you need further clarification. 1. Explain the main differences between the following types of intramolecular bonds: ionic, covalent, polar covalent. 2. Using three examples, explain the significance of hydrogen bonding in biological systems. 3. Draw the basic functional groups( hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate) and indicate where they are located in various macromolecules. Give an example of each. 4. What are the 4 main classes of macromolecules. Describe the structure and function of each one. 5. Define or explain the following terms: dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis, catabolic, anabolic. Give examples of each of these types of reactions 6. List 5 differences between the structure of RNA and DNA. 7. Briefly describe the 4 levels of protein structure 8. Describe the chemical lab tests and results for sugars, starches, fats and proteins. Be familiar with all chemical names found in positive tests. 9. Explain the following terms as they relate to enzyme activity: substrate, catalyst, active site, cofactor, coenzyme, competitive inhibitor, non-competitive inhibitor, lock and key model (induced fit). 10. Write the balanced chemical equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. 11. What factors affect catalase activity and how? (Think of the factors that affect enzyme action) 12. List the parts and functions of all the key parts of the cell (form and function of various organelles such as lysosomes, vacuoles, membranes, ribosomes, SER, RER, golgi bodies) 13. Draw and label the detailed ultrastructure of a chloroplast and a mitochondrion. 14. Describe the structure and function of the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane. Indicate the functions of each of the following subunits: phospholipid, glycoprotein, integral protein, cholesterol 15. Explain the differences between passive and active transport. 16. Describe the following cell processes and indicate if they are either passive or active: diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion 17. State the first and second law of thermodynamics. 18. Summarize the key products and events in glycolysis, transition rx's, Krebs cycle, and ETC. Describe the reactants and products of each reactions (including coenzymes and ATP) 19. Indicate the location of the cell of each of the above rx's. 20. Briefly describe the process of lactic acid fermentation and contrast it to ethanol fermentation. 21. Compare aerobic respiration to anaerobic respiration 22. Define the term homeostasis and give several examples. 23. Explain the difference between positive and negative feedback. 24. Describe 2 ways that the body responds to cold stress and heat stress. 25. Describe the basic organization and function of the kidney. 26. Draw and label and nephron and indicate the key events that occur at each stage. 27. Describe the basic organization and parts of the nervous system (both PNS and CNS) 28. Describe the main differences between the 3 basic types of neurons. Indicate the function of each of the following parts: cell body, myelin sheath, axon, dendrites 29. Explain how messages travel along a neuron. 30. Define the terms; resting potential, action potential-depolarization and repolarization, return to resting potential. Describe what is happening with the sodium potassium pump, sodium channels, and potassium channels during each step. 31. Explain how messages travel between neurons. What happens at a synapse? 32. Compare and contrast the sympathetic nervous system with the parasympathetic nervous system. 33. Define the following terms: nucleotide, hydrogen bond, glycosyl bond, phosphodiester bond, gene, antiparallel, 5', 3',semiconservative, complementary bases 34. Compare and contrast continuous and discontinuous DNA replication. 35. Outline the function of: DNA polymerase I and III, ligase, gyrase, helicase, Okazaki fragment, RNA primase, single stranded binding proteins. 36. Outline the key steps of transcription. 37. Name and describe the 3 types of RNA. 38. What is the central dogma of molecular biology? 39. Explain the significance of the codon table and the following codons: AUG, UAA, UAG, UGA. 40. Why are some amino acids coded for by multiple codons? 41. Describe the main steps of translation. 42. If a DNA strand is ATTGCCTAA, then what does the corresponding mRNA strand look like? What would the anticodons on the matching tRNA’s look like? 43. Describe the process of creating recombinant DNA. 44. What are two ways recombinant DNA is used in society? 45. Define the following terms: habitat, species, population size, and population density. 46. What is the difference between crude density and ecological density? Give an example where these numbers would be different and an example where they would be the same. 47. What are the 3 types of population dispersion? Describe a population that represents each type of dispersion. 48. Describe quadrat sampling. Under what circumstances would this be an effective technique? 49. Describe the mark and recapture method. Under what circumstances would this be an effective technique? 50. Compare biotic and abiotic factors. Give examples of each. 51. Define the following terms: carrying capacity, fecundity/biotic potential, 52. What are the 3 types of survivorship curves? Explain what these curves tell us about the populations they represent. 53. What are the 3 models for population growth? How are they different? Give an example population for each growth model and explain under what conditions that growth model would hold true.