Study Guide for Biochemistry Unit

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Study Guide for Biochemistry Unit
Test questions will be based on the following main ideas:
 If given information from the periodic table, be able to calculate the number of
protons, neutrons, and electrons. Then, be able to correctly draw that atom.
 Be able to explain why atoms would form bonds, and if given information from the
periodic table, be able to determine the type and number of bonds an atom would
form.
Example 1: Na + Cl Each would form one bond and it would be ionic.
Example 2: C and H Carbon would form four bonds and hydrogen would form one
and they would be covalent. Because it is a hydrocarbon, it would be nonpolar.
Example 3: H and O H forms one and O forms two. It would be covalent and
because it is water, it is also polar.
 Be able to explain the difference between an ionic and covalent bond. Be able to show
an example of each (hydrocarbons and water), if given information about the periodic
table about a given set of elements.
 Vocabulary words: atom, element, compound, ionic, covalent, polar, nonpolar,
molecule, ion, isotope
 Be able to compare acids, bases, and neutral substances in terms of their relative
amounts of H+ and OH-, as well as their pH.
 Be able to explain why buffers are useful in a biological system.
 Be able to explain the relationship between the properties of polarity, surface tension,
cohesion, adhesion, specific heat of water, and density.
 Be able to explain why carbon is the main building block of organic molecules and is
found in so many molecules.
 Identify the monomers that make up the following polymers: polysaccharides, lipids,
proteins, and nucleic acids
 Be able to identify the importance of carbohydrates (simple and complex), lipids,
proteins, and nucleic acids. In other words, what is their main function in your body
and in other organisms (including plants).
 Be able to identify the processes through which polymers form and are broken down,
and identify whether water is given off or added to the reactions.
 Be able to identify a saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat (if given pictures),
and be able to explain the difference between each in terms of their structure and state
of matter. Know which one(s) are healthier for you.
 Be able to explain how amino acids differ from one another.
 Be able to explain what happens to a protein during denaturation, and how that affects
a protein’s shape and function.
 Be able to explain why a purine must always pair with a pyrimidine and how the two
strands of DNA are considered antiparallel. How are the two strands held together?
What makes DNA different from RNA? (three things)
***Be able to identify the following if given pictures:
i. Monosachharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide
ii. Saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated fat
iii. Fatty acid and glycerol
iv. Lipid
v. Amino acid
1. Amino group, carboxyl (acidic group), R group
vi. Peptide bond
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