Chapter 6 Minerals and Rocks Test Review Name a mineral made up of a pure element. Copper How is the Mohs Hardness Scale set up and how does it work? What can scratch what and why? It is set up from softest to hardest using numbers 1-10. (look at page 214-215) A mineral with a hardness of a certain number will scratch a mineral with a hardness of less than that. What is the hardest know mineral? Diamond What is the softest mineral? Talc What do Geologists study? Rocks and minerals Using a Venn diagram compare and contrast cleavage and fracture. Cleavage: splitting apart evenly Fracture: Breaks apart in an irregular way Define: Vein A narrow channel or slab of a mineral that is different from the surrounding rock Geode Rounded hollow rock that is often lined with mineral crystals Luster How light is reflected from a minerals surface Streak The color of a minerals powder Atoms of a mineral that are arranged in a repeating pattern form solids called_______ Crystals Define: Erosion The carrying away of rock fragments by water, wind, or ice Sediment Small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things Nonbanded Mineral grins not arranged in parallel layers or bands Rock cycle Process that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another kind Banded and nonbanded describe what type of rock? Metamorphic What causes sedimentary rock to change to metamorphic rock? Chemical reactions pressure and heat What is the difference between an extrusive and an intrusive igneous rock? Extrusive: formed from lava out of volcano Intrusive: formed from magma inside volcano What are the features of a fine grained rock? Mineral particles can be seen only with a microscope What is a coarse grained rock? When all the grains in a rock are large and easy to see Particles of minerals called ______ give rocks its texture. Grains How is metamorphic rock, sedimentary, and igneous rock formed? Metamorphic: heat and pressure deep beneath Earth’s surface Sedimentary: when water deposits tiny particles of clay in very thin, flat layers Igneous: forms from the cooling of magma and lava What are the small particles of rock that make up sedimentary rocks called? Sediment What type of rock does not split into layers? Metamorphic rocks that is nonbanded Why does metamorphic rock rarely form at the Earth’s surface? They almost always from under heat and pressure How are rocks and minerals related? Explain their classification system. Rocks are made up of one or more minerals. Rocks are classified according to the way they form, but minerals are classified according to their physical properties.