Morphosyntax 1 – Lecture 3 – Word formation processes - Creating new vocabulary 1. meaning extension (mouse) 2. lexical borrowing (chopstick) 3. conversion (zero-derivation or functional shift) (fish) 4. Root creation (coinage) – echoic (cuckoo), trade names (Kleenex) 5. Clipping [(tele)phone] 6. Blending (brunch) 7. Acronyms (NATO) and abbreviations (LSD) 8. Back formation (televise) 9. Compounding - combines two base morphemes to create a word with a new meaning that is not necessarily a sum of the meanings of the individual words (hothouse) primary stress and secondary stress - white house X Whitehouse various combinations of parts of speech several ways of compounds classification: a/ primary X synthetic compounds b/ neoclassical compounds c/ endocentric X exocentric compounds d/ compounds with X without a connecting element e/ syntactic X asyntactic compounds f/ coordinative X subordinative compounds phrasal words - complex items that function as words, yet whose internal structure is that of a clause or a phrase rather than of a compound the noun jack-in-the-box X brother-in-law → brothers-in-law *jacks-in-the-box X jack-in-the-boxes an adjective - a dyed-in-the-wool Republican a verb - a couldn’t-care-less attitude old fashioned class of lexical items - governor general – a phrasal word or a lexicalised phrase?