Blood Typing Guided Notes

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Blood Typing Guided Notes
Name: __________________________
Blood Factors

Blood factors are _______________________________________________________

More than 250 different blood factors!

Some blood factors are also _______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

The blood factors that cause the greatest immune response belong to the ABO and Rh groups.
Antigen – Antibody Reactions

Antigens are foreign substances that provoke an immune response – usually the release of
__________________________________________________________________________

Where are they found?
 Surface of pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria, etc.)
 Vaccines (that’s why they work!)
 Allergens (e.g. pollen, dust, etc.)
 Cancer cells (foreign b/c cell has mutated)
 Transplanted tissue / organs

Antibodies are proteins produced by white blood cells that bind to and destroy antigens. Antibodies are specific
to certain antigens
Agglutination

When antibodies bind to RBCs, they
cause _______________________,
or clumping
Why is this bad?

Initially, clumps clog small
capillaries, causing pain and reduced
blood flow

Later, RBCs that are bound to the
antibodies _______________or
break open, releasing hemoglobin
into the blood – which can cause
kidney failure
ABO blood group



In the ABO blood group, there are two antigens, “A” and “B”, found on the surface of RBCs
You can have one type of antigen, both types, or neither
You develop antibodies to the type of antigens you don’t have during infancy
The key to transfusions:
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Blood Type
Can donate to
Can receive from
A
B
AB
O
Which type is the universal donor?
Which type is the universal recipient?
Rh Blood Group

The Rh blood group describes ~45 different (but similar) antigens on RBCs. These antigens are called antigen
“D”

People are Rh + if they have any of the various D antigens. They are Rh – if the do not have any D antigens.

Unlike the ABO system, Rh- people must be ______________________to the D antigen before developing
antibodies. That means Rh- people will NOT have an agglutination reaction the first time they encounter Rh+
blood … but they will if they have it a second time.
Blood Type
Can donate to
Can receive from
Rh+
Rh+
Rh-, Rh+
Rh-
Rh-, Rh+
Rh-
With this added group in mind, what is the true universal donor?
… and the true universal recipient?
Rh group and pregnancy

Rh- moms can carry a Rh+ baby if the dad is Rh+

The first baby is usually born without any problems, but, during delivery, some of the baby’s D antigens will
contact the mom’s blood, causing her to be sensitized to D antigens.

If the mom becomes pregnant with a second Rh+ baby, her immune system will attack the baby’s blood, causing
brain damage or death to the fetus.

This can be prevented by giving the mother medicine that prevents her from developing antibodies against D
antigens.
Blood Typing
__________________________ is a solution
that contains antibodies against a specific
antigen (i.e. antiserum A contains type A
antibodies).
Blood type is determined by adding
antiserum A, B, and D to blood and
observing whether or not agglutination
occurs
How is blood typing used in forensics?


To identify people or link suspects to crime scenes
To identify paternity
Genetics Refresher
We have two versions – or ______________________ – of every gene. One inherited from our mom, one from our dad.
The two alleles (_______________________) interact to determine our trait (____________________) in predictable
ways.


Some alleles are _________________, some are ________________. Dominant genes show their trait
and ‘cover up’ recessive genes.
▪
IA (A) and IB (B) are dominant to i (O).
▪
D (+) is dominant to d (–)
Some alleles are ___________________. This means both alleles fully express their trait.
▪
IA and IB are codominant with each other.
What blood type will result from each genotype?
1. IAiDD
2. iidd
3. IB IB Dd
4. IA IB dd
5. IB iDd
What are the possible genotypes for each blood type?
1. A+
2. AB3. O4. B+
Punnett Squares
Punnett Squares are a tool for predicting the traits that will result from crossing certain genotypes.
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