1. The Hardy-Weinberg equations only hold true, that is, a population is only in equilibrium
A. when immigration in and out of the area are held constant.
B. when changes only take place over long periods of time.
C. when it includes episodes of extinction.
D. when the population is designed to survive in new habitats.
E. when all of the Hardy-Weinberg assumptions are met.
2. The wings of birds and butterflies are examples of structures that resemble each other and have similar function, but are the result of parallel evolution in separate lineages. These structures are called
A. analogous structures.
B. homologous structures.
C. vestigial structures.
D. embryonic structures.
E. homozygous structures.
3. Natural selection as a mechanism of evolution that acts on variants within populations and ultimately leads to the evolution of different species was proposed by
4. Two groups of organisms that differ from one another in one or more characteristics and do not hybridize extensively if they occur together in nature are considered to be different
5. Of the following, the correct order from largest, most inclusive group to smallest, most specific group, is
A. species, genus, family, class, order.
B. species, family, genus, class, order.
C. class, genus, order, family, species.
D. class, order, family, genus, species.
E. class, family, order, genus, species.
6. Artificial selection is different from natural selection because a. artificial selection is not capable of producing large changes b. artificial selection does not require genetic variation c. natural selection cannot produce new species d. breeders (people) choose which individuals reproduce based on desirability of traits
7. The shape of the beaks of Darwin’s finches, industrial melanism, and the changes in horse teeth are all examples of a. artificial selection b. natural selection c. sympatric selection d. stabilizing selection
8. Prezygotic isolating mechanism include all of the following except a. hybrid sterility b. courtship rituals c. habitat separation d. seasonal reproduction
9. __________ isolating mechanisms include improper development of hybrids and failure of hybrids to become established in nature a. Prezygotic b. Postzygotic c. Temporal d. Mechanical
10. Allopatric speciation a. is less common than sympatric speciation b. involves geographic isolation of some kind c. is the only kind of speciation that occurs in plants d. requires polyploidy
11. The hypothesis that evolution occurs in spurts, with great amounts of evolutionary change followed by periods of stasis is a. punctuated equilibrium b. allopatric speciation c. gradualism d. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
12. Founder effects and bottle necks a. are expected only in large populations b. are mechanisms that increase genetic variation in a population c. are two different modes of natural selection d. are forms of genetic drift
13. Many factors can limit the ability of natural selection to cause evolutionary change, including a. conflict between reproduction and survival as seen in guppies b. lack of genetic variation c. pleiotropy d. all of the above.
14. Name the five agents of evolutionary change. (carries two points)
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