Activity # 2 Outlining 13.1

Activity # 2 Outlining the sections
Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
A. Invasions of Western Europe
* Germanic invaders overran western half of the Roman Empire
* Repeated invasions and constant warfare changed Western Europe greatly
I. Disruption of Trade: Invasions from land and sea, the breakdown of trade ruined Europe’s
economic centers or cities
II. Downfall of Cities: Many cities were abandoned
III. Population Shifts: With trade and government collapsing many retreated to rural areas in
Western Europe
B. The Decline of Learning: The Germanic tribes had no written language, people left the
cities and learning declined. Only Priests and clergy remained literate. Greek language and
preservation nearly lost.
C. Loss of a Common Language: The mixing of German peoples with Romans combined with
decline of learning led to a change in Latin. Many different dialects emerged with Latin Roots
(French, Spanish, Italian, English)
D. Germanic Kingdoms Emerge: 400-600 Germanic Kingdoms all over Europe, the Church was
the only surviving institution and provided stability in a time of chaos.
E. The Concept of Government Changes: The Germanic tribes stressed family ties and
personal loyalties with no real written rules or regulations this made it impossible to have an
orderly government over the lands of Western Europe.
F. Clovis Rules the Franks: Roman Province of Gaul ( France/Switzerland)—Franks-Germanic
people held power. The Franks were led by Clovis. Clovis and 3,000 of his warriors converted
to Christianity after a major win in a battle. The Church then supported Clovis and he was
able to unite the Franks. The partnership between a Germanic chief and the Church was
G. Germans adopt Christianity: Politics played a key role in spreading Christianity. The Church
with the help of Frankish rulers converted many Germanic peoples. Fear of the Muslim
attacks also led to people converting
H. Monasteries, Convents, and Manuscripts: With much of western Europe living in rural
areas monasteries developed which were religious communities where the monks living
there devoted their lives to serving God. Women who lived lives of simplicity and devotion to
God were called Nuns and they lived in the convents. Benedict and Scholastica were a
brother and sister, monk/nun who had a practical set of rules for monasteries that could also
be applied to convents.
Monasteries became Europe’s best educated communities. Monks opened schools,
maintained libraries and copied books. Venerable Bede—English monk wrote a history of
Papal Power Expands under Gregory I: Gregory I (Gregory the Great) became
Pope and expanded the papacy-pope’s office. He raised armies, repaired roads,
and helped the poor by doing this he made the pope’s office (papacy) a secular
power—a worldly power involved in politics not just spirituality. He also
strengthened the vision of Christendom—spiritual kingdom.
J. An Empire Evolves: With the dissolution of the Roman Empire several small
kingdoms sprung up all over Europe. The Kingdom of the Franks (present day
France) was the largest and strongest.
K. Charles Martel Emerges: The most powerful person in the Frankish kingdom
was the major domo-mayor of the palace—(ruler of the kingdom) Charles
Martel (Charles the Hammer) was major domo and won an important battle at
Tours. His victory ensured that the Muslims would not take over the land. This
win made him known as (Christian hero) for saving the Franks from the
Muslims. Pepin the Short (Martel’s son) agreed to fight the Lombards for the
Pope. In exchange the Pope anointed him “king by the Grace of God”. Pepin
was the first in the line of the Carolingian Dynasty—the family that ruled the
Franks from 751-987.
L. Charlemagne Becomes Emperor: Pepin dies and leaves his land to his two
sons---Carloman and Charles. After Carloman’s death, Charles inherits all the
land. Charlemagne—Charles the Great would take the Frankish kingdom to
new heights.
M. Charlemagne extends Frankish Rule: Charlemagne united western Europe
and built an empire larger than that of the Byzantine. He also spread
Christianity. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor in thanks for his help
with attacks. This crowing was very significant as it gave the Pope the power to
give the title “Roman Emperor” to a king. Signaling the joining of Germanic
power, the Church and the heritage of Rome.
N. Charlemagne leads a Revival: He limited the role of the nobles, he sent our
royal agents and counts, he kept a close watch and management of his lands,
he encouraged learning, he opened a palace school, he had monasteries open