What aspects of language can be meaningful? SOUNDS Individual sounds (“phonemes”) — can change the meaning of the word Ex: can vs. cat ran vs. run ser vs. ver Syllable stress — can change word’s part of speech Ex: permit (noun) vs. permit (verb) record (noun) vs. record (verb) Tone — use of pitch (high, low, rising, falling) to differentiate word meaning or features of a sentence WORDS or PARTS OF WORDS Parts of words (“morphemes”) — can represent subject, verb, tense, or other parts of sentence Ex: nilipiga – “I hit” ulipiga – “you hit” walipiga – “they hit” Prefixes & suffixes — specific class of morphemes; can change part of speech, tense, etc. of single word Ex: walks Ex. 2: believe (verb) walked believable (adj) walking unbelievable (adj) unbelievably (adverb) WORD ORDER (“syntax”) Ex: House painted student a the. vs. A student painted the house. I should go to the store. vs. Should I go to the store? Can I help him with something? vs. Kann ich ihm mit etwas helfen? CONTEXT is also important. We will discuss this in more detail throughout the class.