AP Biology PHS Unit 9: MACRO evolution At the conclusion of this unit, you should be able to: 1. Explain the following characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification: a. Binomial nomenclature b. Hierarchical classification. 2. Differentiate between the three Domains; Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya 3. Explain the subtle differences between a cladogram and a phylogenetic tree. 4. Cladograms or phylogenetic trees are used to identify shared characteristics and make inferences about the evolutionary history of the group, true or false? 5. Define a clade. Distinguish between a monophyletic clade and paraphyletic and polyphyletic groupings of species. 6. Describe how homology and analogy can be distinguished from each other. 7. Explain why bird and bat wings are homologous as vertebrate forelimbs but analogous as wings. 8. Use molecular data to reconstruct phylogenies and make a cladogram based on traits. 9. Define speciation in terms of change in gene frequencies, changes in the environment, natural selection and/or genetic drift. 10. Define: adaptive radiation, isolation, natural selection, stable gene pool, convergent evolution, divergent evolution, gradualism, and punctuated equilibrium. 11. Distinguish between prezygotic and postzygotic isolating mechanisms. 12. Distinguish between allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation. 13. Describe the contributions Stanley Miller and Harold Urey made toward developing a model for the abiotic synthesis of organic molecules. Describe the conditions and locations where most of these chemical reactions likely occurred on the early Earth. 14. Name the reactions that have produced O2 on Earth. Describe the accumulation of atmospheric O2 over time and the effects of this accumulation on living things. 15. Explain the endosymbiotic theory for the evolution of the eukaryotic cell. Describe the evidence that supports this theory.