Cognosy I
Lecture 10
Clinical 2020
Clinical 2020
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The word herb (sometimes referred to as botanical) has several different meanings depending on the perspective:
commercial terms
horticultural terms
taxonomic terms
terms of herbal medicine
herb generally refers to
plants used for culinary
purposes. Additionally the
terminology differentiates
Temperate Zone plants from
tropical and sub-tropical
plants (i.e., spices).
herb refers to
"herbaceous," which
describes the
appearance of the plant
(i.e., a non-woody,
vascular plant).
herb generally refers to
the aboveground parts
or the aerial parts (i.e.,
the flower, leaf, and
herb refers to plants used in
various forms or
preparations, valued for their
therapeutic benefits, and
sold as dietary supplements
 Botanists describe an herb as a small, seed bearing plant with fleshy, rather than woody, parts
(from which we get the term "herbaceous").
 In addition to herbaceous perennials, herbs include trees, shrubs, annuals, vines, and more primitive
plants, such as ferns, mosses, algae, lichens, and fungi.
Type of herb
 Herb as a whole plant ( include the root ) e.g. Vinca
 Herb as aerial part only e.g. Lobelia
 Tops of aerial parts Cannabis
 Non Differentiated plant Body or thallus
The Stem
 in botany it is the plant axis that bears buds and shoots with leaves and at its basal end there is
the roots.
 The stem is the stalk of a plant or the main trunk of a tree.
 The stem conducts water, minerals, and food to other parts of the plant
 it may also store food, and green stems themselves produce food.
 In most plants the stem is the major vertical shoot, in some it is inconspicuous, and in others it is
modified and resembles other plant parts (e.g., underground stems may look like roots).
 Holds up the plant Above the Ground
 Consists of 2 parts
 Main stem
 Branches
 Has 2 types
 Hard Stem
 Soft stem
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Forms of stem
Erect or strong
prostrate or Documbent procumbent
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Weak Stem
1. Rootllet
2. Hook Climber
3. Tendril
4. Leaf Climbers
5. Stem Climbers
or Twiners
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Branching of the stem
Racemose or Indefinite
Cymose or Definite
Uniparous Cyme
Biparous Cyme
Multiparous Cyme
The dried leaves and flowering tops of
Mentha piperita Linne Family Labiatae.
not less than 0.5% Volatile oil
Summer Thyme, Garden Thyme
the dried aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris L.
Family Labiatae.
not less than 1.2% Volatile oil
Europe and North America
Mediterranean region,
 Mainly volatile oil (0.7 to 1.5% contains up to Volatile Oil ( up to 1%) Containing Phenolic
compound, Mainly Thymol and Carvacrol
78% menthol )
(up to 64% of the oil )
 Tannin and Flavonoids
 Flavonoids, Apigenin, Luteolin
 Saponin
 Gallstones and severs liver damage
 Gastro-esophageal reflux disease.
 Avoid use with infants and small children
 Antispasmodic
 Carminative
 Choleretic
 Diaphoretic
 Anti-emetic
Cardiac insufficiency
During Pregnant
Powerful Antiseptic for respiratory Tract
Antimicrobial ( antifungal, antibacterial )
Carminative, digestive and antispasmodic
Diuretic and urinary antiseptic
 Rubificant
 Local anesthetic
 Antiseptic
 Antipyretic
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In aromatherapy menthol oil is indicated to
 Used for mouth infections
 Inhalation of the herb and the oil in
boiling water are effective against
upper respiratory infection
 Rheumatic and joints pain
 Used to relieve itching and
inflammation of skin
 The oil is helpful remedy in fevers and
influenza since it promotes sweating
 Treatment of dry cough, whooping cough
bronchitis, asthma, and catarrhs of the
upper respiratory tract
 Used to improve digestion, flatulence,
Colic and internal parasites
 In urinary tract disorders
Topical applications of thyme extract
 Used in the treatment of minor wounds
 Used as an antibacterial agent in oral
Side Effect
- Mintovex : Massage gel
- Mentholax
- Otrivine
Thyme Oil when used internally in a large
dose causes nausea and respiratory arrest
for this reason the herb preferred to the oil
Nausea and respiratory arrest have been
reported when thyme oil is used internally in
large dose
Thymol is especially toxic and can produce
abdominal pain, headache, convulsions and
respiratory collapse
- Bronchicum : for improve function of bronchi
and antispasmodic cough.
 Thyme fluid extract ---------- 5 g
 Primula root fluid extract ----2.5 g
-Bronchipret: for bronchitis.
 Loosens thick mucus
 Heals bronchial inflammation
 Reduces coughing fits
-Fluid extract ,Tincture (1: 10, 70% ethanol): 40
drops up to 3 times daily.
-Topical use: 5% infusion as a gargle or mouthwash .
Thymol crystals + 1ml of glacial acetic acid +
few drops of conc.H2SO4 + 1 drop of HNO3
Bluish green Color
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menthol crystals + few drops of conc.H2SO4 +
few drops of Vanillin / H2SO4
Orange Yellow Color
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