American Civilization
Chapter 1
Foundations of Government
Anarchy- no law or government
Government- leaders make and enforce the laws that affect those under its control
Functions of Government
Provide leadership priorities
Maintains order- control conflicts, set limits
Provide public services- schools, roads, bridges, food
Provides National Security- keep us safe from attack
Provide economic security- FDIC, stimulate economy
Nation- group of people united by race, customs, language
State- political community occupying a territory with an organized government
Origins of the State
1. Evolutionary Theory- the state evolved from the family unit. Extended
families needed organization.
2. Force Theory- strongest leaders used violence to control their own people
3. Divine Right Theory- certain people are chosen by god/gods to rule
4. Social Contract Theory- people surrender to the state the power needed to
maintain order and the state agrees to protect citizens.
Systems of Government- Where is the power?
1. Unitary System- all powers go to the central government. (Japan/France)
2. Confederate System- a loose union of sovereign states. Weak central
government and strong state government. (early U.S.)
3. Federal System- Divides power of government between the National and
State government. (current U.S.)
Problem- each government can make their own laws. Ex. Marijuana