Name: Hour: Unit 1: Study Guide Map of Middle East Be able to identify on a map of the Middle east the following (review chapter 4 assessment map): Rivers: Tigris River, Euphrates River, Nile River Mountain Ranges: Zagros mountains, Taurus mountains Regions: Mesopotamia, Sumer, Fertile Crescent Bodies of Water: Persian Gulf, Mediterranean Sea, Caspian Sea Vocabulary Know the following vocabulary definitions: Archaeologist Historian Artifact Fertile Crescent Domesticate Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age Trade Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Sumer City-state Code of Laws Empire Agriculture Artisan Merchant Civilization Assessment Questions: Know the answer to the following questions: Chapter 1: Investigating the Past What important discovery did four teenagers make at Lascaux, France in 1940? An object made or used by people in the past is a what? A prehistoric object is one that comes from a time when? Why do historians read diaries and letters from the past? Which clues to the past have been found near the artwork displayed in parts of caves? What so scientists think may have been the reason why ancient artists made paint by grinding different minerals and mixing the powder with fat or oil? Name: Hour: Chapter 3: From Hunters and Gatherers to Farmers How did people in the Paleolithic Age get their food? What change began the Neolithic Age, about 8000 B.C.E.? Why was the Fertile Crescent the site of many early settlements? What was the greatest benefit to people when early farmers began to raise plants and animals? How did dividing up the work help communities produce more to meet their needs? Why did Neolithic people trade? If you were a Neolithic trader, what would most likely happen as you traveled and traded? Chapter 4: The Rise of Sumerian City-States The name Mesopotamia comes from its location, which is what? Why were Sumerian communities called city-states? What development caused food shortages in the Zagros foothills? Why did the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flood in the spring? Why were levees built in ancient Sumer? Why did the villages of Sumer depend on each other? Why did the people of Sumer construct moats? Chapter 5: Ancient Sumer Which inventions helped with the food supply in Sumer? Small, mud-brick houses at the edge of the city were the homes of who? Which Sumerian belief about the king helped strengthen the social order? Why were scribes important in Sumerian government? What was the purpose of the ziggurat? Which invention made it possible for Sumerian armies to use chariots? What evidence found by archaeologists shows that Sumerians were not prehistoric? Records of the goods people exchanged were made on what? Chapter 6: Exploring the 4 Empires of Mesopotamia What was a problem caused by Sumerian city-states’ independence from one another? What did the Akkadians use to gain power over Sumer? How did the Akkadians get the resources to build up their capital city? For what is Hammurabi best remembered? How was the legal system of Babylon more advanced than that of other societies at that time? Which city was the capital of the Assyrian Empire? Who conquered the land of the Israelites and took many Israelites to Babylon as captives? Where were the Hanging Gardens of Babylon planted? A problem that all four Mesopotamian empires had was difficulty in what?