ABO and Rh Blood grouping Objectives

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ABO and Rh Blood grouping
Objectives
By the end of activity student must able to know
-
Naming of blood grouping
Antigen and antibody present on RBCs cell membrane
How to perform blood grouping?
Donate and receive blood.
Material Requirements
-Antisera set, anti A (yellow color), anti B (blue color), anti AB
(colorless), anti D (colorless).
- Slides.
- Gloves.
- Wooden sticks.
- Blood sample.
Introduction;
RBCs have antigen (Ag) in their membrane either A or B antigen.
According to presence or absence of these antigens we have four
main blood groups A, B, AB (both) and O (null). (ABO system)
Each group can then be either Rh D positive or negative (Rh
system), so blood group can be one of eight types
Corresponding to antigen on RBCs they is an antibodies in the
serum, e.g. A grouping have antibody B.
Blood group named by two systems, ABO and Rh.
Blood group is identified by the antigens and antibodies that are
present in the blood.
Blood group Ag/Ab and blood transfusion
Blood
grouping
A Rh+
Antigen
Antibody
Donate to
Receive from
A and Rh(D)
B
A Rh-
A
A Rh +, A Rh –
O Rh +, O Rh A Rh –
O Rh -
B Rh+
B and Rh (D)
B (can
develop Rh
antibody)
A
A Rh +
AB Rh+
A Rh +, A Rh –
AB Rh +, AB Rh -
B Rh-
B
B Rh +
AB Rh +
B Rh +, B Rh –
AB Rh +, AB Rh -
B Rh +, B Rh –
O Rh +, O Rh B Rh –
O Rh -
O Rh+
Rh (D)
O Rh +
O Rh-
O Rh-
None
AB Rh+
A, B and Rh (D)
O Rh +
A Rh+
B Rh +
AB Rh+
AB Rh +, AB Rh –
A Rh+, A Rh –
B Rh +, B Rh –
O Rh +, O Rh AB Rh+
AB Rh-
A and B
A (can
develop Rh
antibody)
A and B
A and B
(can
develop Rh
antibody)
None
None (can
develop Rh
antibody)
AB Rh +, AB Rh -
O Rh -
AB Rh +, AB Rh –
A Rh+, A Rh –
B Rh +, B Rh –
O Rh +, O Rh A Rh –
B Rh –
AB Rh –
O Rh -
Procedures
Collect blood sample (various blood grouping)
On slide dispel four drops of blood.
Add antisera A, B, AB and D to each drop.
Mix, and incubate at room tempura (5 min).
Look for agglutination and read the result as the following table
Unagglutinated blood smear
Agglutinated blood
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