BLOOD GROUPS FACTS ABOUT BLOOD GROUPS • THE MOST IMPORTANT BLOOD GROUP IN THE U.S. IS THE ABO GROUP • 3 ALLELES FOR THIS GROUP: A,B & O • A PERSON CAN ONLY INHERIT 2 ALLELES (GENES) FOR THIS POSSIBLE GENE COMBINATIONS GENOTYPE (alleles) AA PHENOTYPE (actual blood type) A AO A BB B BO B AB AB OO O Antigen • In immunology, an antigen is a substance that evokes the production of one or more antibodies. Each antibody binds to a specific antigen by way of an interaction similar to the fit between a lock and a key Antibody • An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large Y-shaped protein produced by B-cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses • So the foreign antigen is the “bad guy” and the antibody is the molecule your body uses to fight the foreign antigen • Serology – the study of antigen – antibody reactions Laboratory Examination Individualization • The surface of a RBC contains antigens • Antigen (Ag) – a glycoprotein that stimulates the body to produce antibodies (Ab) against it • Antigens impart bloodtype characteristics to the RBC Laboratory Examination – ABO and Rh system Recipient Meaning they have the following blood type A (antigen A and antibody B) B (antigen B and antibody A AB (antigen A and B and no antibodies) O (not antigens but both antibody A and B*) Donor A B AB O Recipient Donor A A (antigen A and antibody B) B (antigen B and antibody A AB (antigen A and B and no antibodies) O (not antigens but both antibody A and B*) B AB O Rh Factor Recipient Donor Posit ive Positive Negative Negative Laboratory Examination – ABO and Rh system • The population distribution of blood types varies with location and race throughout the world • In the US, a typical distribution: 60 40 Percent 20 0 O type A type B type AB type FREQUENCY OF BLOOD TYPES A B AB O 41 % 10 % 4% LEAST COMMON 45% MOST COMMON UNIVERSAL DONOR: THE BLOOD TYPE THAT CAN BE GIVEN TO ALL OTHER BLOOD TYPES. TYPE O- IS THE UNIVERSAL DONOR. UNIVERSAL ACCEPTOR: THE BLOOD TYPE THAT CAN RECEIVE ALL OTHER BLOOD TYPES. TYPE AB+ IS THE UNIVERSAL ACCEPTOR. Rh FACTOR • THE Rh FACTOR IS ANOTHER ANTIGEN (PROTEIN) THAT CAN BE FOUND ON THE SURFACE OF SOME RBC’S • PEOPLE WITH THIS PROTEIN ON THEIR RBC’S ARE Rh+ • . • PEOPLE WHO LACK THIS PROTEIN ARE Rh-. ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS • A HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF NEWBORNS. • THE RESULT OF Rh INCOMPATIBILITY • THE MOTHER IS Rh- & THE FATHER IS Rh+ • BOTH HEMOLYSIS & AGGLUTINATION WILL RESULT BROKEN RBC IMMATURE RBC (NUCLEATED) NORMAL RBC WHAT DISEASE CONDITIONS WOULD YOU EXPECT THIS BABY TO HAVE AT BIRTH? • ANEMIA • JAUNDICE WHAT IS THE Tx FOR THESE BABIES? A COMPLETE BLOOD TRANSFUSION PREVENTION? • RHOGAM: CONTAINS ANTI-Rh ANTIBODIES • HOW IS IT ADMINISTERED? • INJECTION • WHEN IS IT ADMINISTERED? • DURING THE PREGNANCY & WITHIN 72 HOURS AFTER DELIVERY .