Indus[1] - ridgeaphistory

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Indus (River Valley Civilization): Advanced SCRIPTED Chart
SOCIAL STRUCTURES
The Indus river valley had a caste system which had four main classes:
Brahmans (priests and kings), Kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats), Vishyas
(cultivators, artisans, and merchants), and Sudras (peasants and serfs).
The fact that women had the ability to produce offspring and nurse, they
were valued.
CULTURE
Houses were made of dry bricks and were one to two stories high. There
were no monuments or structures and for defense they used Citadels.
Developed own alphabet and artistic forms: yoga positions, writing
system, and mother goddess. They had writings on prayers, religious
rituals, and hymns.
RELIGION
Hinduism (~1700-1100 B.C.E.) was polytheistic. They believed in one god
with reincarnation and karma. Buddhism (365 B.C.E.) was monotheistic.
Many of the Indus river valley seals show animals.
INTERACTIONS
Greatly depended on trade. Traded with Mesopotamia and within the
civilization.
POLITICS
Several large cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro suggests that they
could have had urban cities.
TECHNOLOGY
Houses had running water. Most technology was used to help with
agriculture. Out of the whole world, the Indus river civilization was the first
ones to develop precise measurement and weighing technology. Boats
were used for transportation and trade.
ECONOMICS
Sudras were the laborers or the civilization. A major factor was the silk
road, trade routes, and the fact that they traded textiles. They were very
advanced when it came to agriculture and domestic animals helped a
lot with preparing the land to grow the crops on.
DEMOGRAPHY
Runs through present day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka,
and Bhutan. Its natural borders, Mountains and the Arabian Sea, protect
its citizens from attack and disease. The rivers helped fertilize and irrigate
crops. Primary crops included wheat and barley. Since they were
isolated, there was no real need for weapons.
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Economic, social classes
Gender roles, relations
Inequalities
Family, kinship
Racial, ethnic constructs
Cultural
Intellectual
Arts, architecture
Family, lifestyles
Literatures
Religion
World views
Philosophy
Secularism, atheism
Ideologies and “isms”
War, conflict
Trade, commerce
Exchanges, migrations
Diplomacy, alliances
Transnational organizations
Nations, nationalism
Empires
Forms of government
Revolts, revolutions
State-building, expansion
Industry
Science, invention, innovation
Power
Transportation
Communication
Industrialization
Economic systems
Capitalisms, socialism
Business organizations
Labor, labor organizations
Demography, Disease
Human, Environment
Interaction
Patterns of settlement
Geography, Region
Agriculture, pastoralism
http://www.rivervalleycivilizations.com/indus.php
http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Ancient/Indus2.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization
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