Exam #5 Study Guide Chapter 43: Animal Reproduction 1. Describe the basic purposes of reproduction 2. List and describe the four methods of asexual reproduction. Give examples of animals that reproduce by each method. 3. Describe the details of parthenogenesis and how it differs from sexual reproduction. 4. List and describe the costs of sexual reproduction. 5. Describe the main reason that the benefits of reproduction could outweigh the costs. 6. Describe the difference between external and internal fertilization. Give examples of animals that reproduce by each method. 7. Describe the following copulatory organs: penis, clasper, hemipenis, phallus. Give an example of an animal with each. 8. Define bacculum. 9. Describe how male birds inseminate females. 10. Describe the function of testes, sperm, and copulatory organs. 11. Describe the function of ovaries, oviducts, and uteruses. 12. Describe the function of an egg in egg-laying animals. 13. Describe the characteristics of eggs laid by aquatic or amphibious animals. 14. Describe the characteristics of eggs laid by land animals. 15. Describe the differences between the eggs of reptiles and birds. 16. Define amnion, allantois, and yolk sac. 17. Define hermaphrodite and give an example of one. 18. Describe the difference between self-fertilization and cross-fertilization. Give an example of an animal that uses each method. 19. Define, describe and give an example of sequential hermaphrodites. 20. Define and describe viviparous, oviparous, and ovoviviparous. Give an example of an animal of each type. 21. Describe a placenta and its functions. Chapter 44: Human Reproduction 1. Define and give the function of the following structures in male anatomy: testes, seminiferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, scrotum, penis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland, semen. 2. Trace the path of sperm from its formation to its exit from the male reproductive system. Name all important structures included along the path. 3. Describe the ages involved in human spermatogenesis. 4. List the 5 hormones involved in spermatogenesis and tell what each does in the process. 5. Define the following structures: spermatogonia cells, Leydig cells, Sertoli cells 6. Describe the structure of a sperm. What does the acrosome do? 7. Define and give the function of the following structures in female anatomy: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, endometrium, cervix, vagina, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, primary follicle, corpus luteum. 8. Describe the steps in oogenesis. 9. List the 5 hormones involved in oogenesis and tell what each does in the process. 10. List and describe the 4 phases of the human menstrual cycle, including on which days each happens, and what happens in each phase (pay particular attention to hormone changes). 11. Describe the steps in cellular fertilization of the egg by the sperm. 12. Define zona pellucid and corticle granules. 13. Define conceptus, embryo, and fetus. 14. Give the average length of human gestation 15. Describe embryo development, including defining zygote, morula, blastula, blastocoel, and gastrula. 16. Be able to describe what is happening in an embryo or fetus at weeks 4, 5, 6, 8, 10-13, 14-17, 20, 24, 28, 32, and 37-40. 17. Define lanugo. Chapter 46: Communities & Biodiversity 1. List the hierarchy of organization from multicelled organism to biosphere. 2. Define community. 3. List 6 things from which a community’s structure arises. 4. Define niche, fundamental niche, and realized niche. 5. Define commensalism, mutualism, parasitism, and predation. Give examples of each. 6. Define ectoparasite, endoparasite, and brood parasite. Give examples of each. 7. Describe the harmful effects of parasitism on a host. 8. Describe the balanced relationship between predators and prey. 9. Describe how the predator-prey relationship affects natural selection in each. 10. List and describe the 5 methods of prey defense and give examples of each. 11. List, describe, and give examples of the 4 methods that predators can use to overcome prey defenses. 12. Describe how communities make stability, and what can destabilize them. 13. Define keystone species, describe the two kinds, and give examples. 14. Describe what can happen when a new species is introduced into a stable community, and how they can be introduced. Give two examples. Chapter 49: Animal Behavior 1. Define and compare/contrast ethology, comparative psychology, and behavioral ecology. 2. List the 4 main pioneers in animal behavior and what each is known for. 3. List and describe how behaviors can give benefit and adaptive success. 4. List and describe the 4 question that Tinbergen proposed we ask of any observed behavior. 5. Describe instinctive behaviors and give examples. 6. Define fixed action pattern and sign stimulus. Give examples of both. 7. Describe learned behaviors and give examples. 8. Describe how some behaviors are related to an animal’s age. 9. Define the two different kinds of imprinting, as well as the concept of imprinting in general. 10. Define association behavior and give examples. 11. Compare & contrast signals and displays. 12. Describe the two kinds of pheromones. 13. List and describe 3 methods of behavioral signals. Give examples of each. 14. List and describe 3 methods of behavioral displays. Give examples of each. 15. Define sexual selection. 16. Define and describe nuptial gifts and leks. 17. Describe the costs & benefits of parental care. 18. List and define the 4 types of parental care. Give an example of each. 19. Define infanticide and describe why a male animal might do this. 20. List and describe the costs of social behavior. 21. Describe the types of cooperative predator avoidance. Give examples of each and tell why they are beneficial. 22. Describe the benefits of cooperative hunting, reproduction in a social group, and communal rearing of young. 23. Describe how dominance hierarchies benefit the dominant and subordinate animals. 24. Define the characteristics of eusocial animals. Give examples of animals with this social structure. 25. Define altruistic behavior and give examples. What benefit does an animal in a colony have by performing this behavior? This study guide covers the majority of information on the exam but not all of it. You are still responsible for any information that was covered in the lecture but not put on this guide (intentionally or unintentionally). Good Luck and Study Hard!!