Objectives 14

Topic 14
Reproduction and Embryonic
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Compare the types, advantages, and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction.
Human Reproduction
Describe the structures and functions of the female and male human reproductivesystems.
Describe and compare the processes and products of spermatogenesis and oogenesis.
Describe the events of and control of the menstrual cycle. Note the specific functions of
releasing hormone, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone.
Principles of Embryonic Development
Relate the structure of sperm to its role in fertilization. Describe the mechanisms that
prevent more than one sperm from fertilizing an egg and that prevent hybridization
between different species.
Describe the process and results of cleavage. Explain how identical and nonidentical
twins form.
Describe the process of gastrulation and the resulting arrangement of the embryo.
Explain how organs form after the development of a gastrula.
Explain how changes in cell shape, cell migration, and apoptosis contribute to development.
Explain how the one-dimensional information in DNA is used to direct the threedimensional form of an embryo.
Human Development
Describe the initial embryonic stages and the formation and functions of the
extraembryonic membranes.
Describe the main changes that occur during each of the trimesters of human
Explain how labor begins and describe the main events of the three stages of labor.
Describe the common causes of human infertility and the technologies currently available
to help couples conceive.