Daniel Young Per. E 10-6-08 Chapter 12 Review Questions 1. What part did politics play in the religious positions of the French leaders? How did the king (or his regent) decide which side to favor? What led to the infamous St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, and what did it achieve? Several kings actually converted from their main denomination to another in order to achieve the throne. Henry IV actually made it legal for Protestants to practice in their own homes. They decided on whichever side was the majority in the country. Henry III was convinced by his mother to set the massacre in motion. It made his successor see the need for tolerance. 2. How did Spain achieve a position of dominance in the sixteenth century? What were its strengths and weaknesses as a nation? What were Philip II’s goals? Which was he able to achieve and why? 3. Henry of Navarre (Henry IV of France), Elizabeth I, and William of Orange were all politiques. Define the term and explain why it applies to these three rulers. They placed the welfare of their kingdom before religious unification. Henry IV made it legal for Protestants to practice in private. Both Elizabeth and William put their country before trying to change religion. 4. Discuss the background to the establishment of the Anglican Church in England. What were the politics of Mary I? What was Elizabeth I’s settlement and how difficult was it to impose on all of England? Who where her detractors and what were their criticisms? 5. Why was the Thirty Years’ war fought? To what extent did politics determine the out come of the war? Discuss the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. Could matters have been resolved without war? 6. The Thirty Years’ War is the outstanding example in European history of meaningless conflict. Evaluate this statement and provide specific reasons.