English Grade 8

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Life Orientation

GRADE 8

Educator’s Guide & Marking

Guidelines

English

Grade 8

It is important to empower the learners by setting out the planned outcomes for the year and directing them to focus for the work.

Before we begin discussing the work for this year, it’s necessary to set out a few basic requirements.

This is purely a guideline for the organisation of work – each educator may have a preferred system. As long as learners are offered a clear sense of the requirements.

1. File Divisions:

Your English file needs 10 file dividers to have the following sections for work to be collected into -

ENGLISH FILE DIVIDERS

1. COMPREHENSION

2. LANGUAGE

3. LITERATURE:

3.1.Novels

3.2.Short Stories

4. POETRY

5. SHAKESPEARE & DRAMA

6. VISUAL LITERACY & FILM STUDY

7. WRITING:

7.1Creative Writing

7.2.Transactional Writing

8. ORALS

9. TESTS & EXAMS

2. Page Formatting:

In Maragon’s English department we format our work according to a specific pattern. All the work that you do for assessment needs to be formatted according to the following design:

English

Grade 8

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT:

Page Formatting

Marking

Margin

NAME

GRADE / CLASS

DATE

QUESTION 1:

HEADING

QUESTION 2.1:

2.3:

2.2:

English

Grade 8

Again, each educator has a system or style, but most of these are based on conventional editing symbols.

3. Marking symbols and Abbreviations:

Your teachers will use the following symbols when marking your work. It is essential that you understand what each symbol means, as they will guide you to improve your writing and making your thinking clearer.

MARKING ABBREVIATIONS:

Sp = Incorrect Spelling

P = Incorrect Punctuation

G = Grammar mistake

W O = Word Order error

S = Incorrect Sentence structure

^ = Insert / Something missing

= Skip a line / Begin a New Paragraph

= Begin a New Sentence

? = The writing is unclear or confusing

Underlined work means there is an error that needs to be corrected / The title of a book, film or work of art needs to be underlined.

4. How To Use This Manual:

The intention of Modules was to allow educators a certain amount of flexibility when designing work programmes.

This Manual is divided into Modules which are designed around Themes.

These Themes are based on the Learning Outcomes and the prescribed setworks for the year.

Your teachers will decide on how the Manual will be used, for example,

Module 3: Language contains the information you will need for the year.

This Module could be done as a single “block” of work, or it could be done in pieces with another Module / Setwork.

The activities are designed to be done either in class with discussion or they

could be completed as homework exercises – your teacher will inform you of how they will used.

5.

The Most Important Learning Outcome!

The most important and difficult Learning Outcome to master and display is

LEARNING OUTCOME 5: THINKING AND REASONING.

Although they may not be assessed outright, they are being tested in EVERY activity you do this year!

English

Grade 8

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 1: Uses language to think and reason:

• applies thinking and reasoning skills in a variety of contexts across the curriculum;

• discusses and explains the perspective and position of the author in various texts;

• explains and discusses cause and effect (e.g. ‘Why is this the cause of …?’);

• presents a counter-argument and gives reasons (e.g. ‘I disagree because…’ and ‘I support my argument with…’);

• recognises and explains why information can be considered ‘factual’ or ‘objective’;

• draws on own experience in order to substantiate point of view;

• questions and infers to solve problems and develop thinking about complex issues, ideas and emotions (e.g. human rights issues, environmental issues, personal dilemmas, crosscurricular topics).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2: Uses language to investigate and explore:

• asks questions on national and cross-curricular issues (e.g. corporal punishment, environmental debates);

• weighs options by considering a number of alternatives;

• does independent research across the curriculum;

• locates and accesses information from a wide variety of sources (e.g. radio, Internet, various kinds of written texts, libraries);

• refines the use of appropriate referencing techniques and conventions when copying

(and citing) information from sources (e.g. records author, title, date, publisher, page numbers, website);

• works on increasingly complex projects across Learning Areas and produces a synthesized product.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 3: Processes information:

• experiments with different kinds of note-taking and note-making (e.g. taking notes under different circumstances, using abbreviations for speed);

• pays attention to referencing details;

• extracts and synthesises information, using listening, reading, writing and viewing skills;

• changes information from one format or language to another (transcoding or translation);

• summarises information or ideas by selecting, generalising, categorising and editing, and reflects critically on the product;

• formulates thoughts orally and in writing in increasingly complex ways, using knowledge of language (e.g. moving from simple to complex sentences).

English

Grade 8

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4: Thinks creatively:

• visualises, predicts, fantasises and empathises with sensitivity to make meaning and solve problems;

• imagines possibilities and alternatives to expand thinking (hypothesises and speculates);

• considers differences and uses them creatively and positively (e.g. differences in experience, culture, interest and personality);

• writes experimentally to explore ideas, emotions and imaginative experience;

• compares how different languages express terms in different Learning Areas and create links to help understanding and assist in problem-solving.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5: Uses language to reflect:

• reflects on what is heard or read, to ask critical questions and challenge views;

• reflects on development of own ability as speaker, listener and writer in a range of different contexts, and identifies areas for improvement;

• consolidates reflection on own strengths as contributor in group activities and identifies further opportunities for development.

English

Grade 8

MODULE 1

All the Languages studied at school fall into the category of Language, Literacy and

Communication. Which means that studying English in High School is all about improving and developing certain skills in order to ensure that we communicate well. By this stage in your school career you have already acquired these skills, so now it is just a matter of strengthening them. As a result, much of what you are going to do is about practising these skills in different contexts.

In grade 8 you will work on the following skills:

1.

Listening

to a variety of audio sources.

2.

Speaking

in a variety of contexts for a variety of purposes.

3.

Reading

a large variety of written and visual texts.

4.

Viewing

a variety of verbal and audio-visual texts.

5.

Writing

in a variety of ways for different contexts and purposes.

6.

Using correct language structures

to ensure clear communication.

As you work through the activities in this manual your teacher will assess you according to the

following levels:

Level Percentage Description of Skills.

1

80 – 100 % Above average achievement.

2

70 – 79 %

3

60 -69 % Competent achievement.

4

50 – 59 %

5

40 – 49 % Basic achievement.

6

0 – 29 % Unsatisfactory achievement.

7

No achievement.

This table shows how all the assessments are not about how much information you have learnt, but what skill level you have demonstrated.

You will find that you may get different marks for the different activities because certain of your skills are more developed than others. This is normal!

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Grade 8

It is important for you to review and reflect on all the feedback you receive from your teacher – in the form of verbal or written comments and rubrics – as these comments will show where you need to improve particular skills.

u should hear my sister Monique on her phone

– she never even pauses to catch her breath – she always does very well in her orals!

And now ... let’s go to work!

MODULE 1: Preparing an Oral.

The first module is an oral exercise specifically designed to allow the educator an opportunity to gauge the abilities of the learners while also offering an opportunity for the class to get to know each other.

The important elements of Oral activities are identify the context for which the oral is being used. The educator must clearly define the purpose and context, especially register, required in the activity. A discussion on different oral contexts and purposes is therefore an essential introduction to the activity.

Probably the most used means of communication on a daily basis is the skill of speaking – we spend most of our days talking to each other. This makes it very ironic when people say that they’re nervous to stand up and speak to large groups of people.

In the following activity you will be given an opportunity to prepare, refine and then present a short speech.

Skills being assessed: Learning Outcome 2 - Speaking

Assessment Standards

- Communicates ideas and feelings creatively and expressively with a great degree of confidence and with limited assistance, using a range of selected oral text

types.

Communicates ideas, facts and opinions on challenging topics clearly and accurately and with a greater degree of coherence, using a range of factual oral text types. Gives oral presentations with a great degree of accuracy and creativity, paying attention to: clear and audible enunciation;

• pausing;

• variation in tempo and volume;

• purpose and audience;

• posture and body language;

• different presentation modes;

• register;

• tone; different social cultural conventions; appropriate figurative devices such as climax, anti-climax and hyperbole (exaggeration for effect).

English

Grade 8

The time allocations provided are purely suggestions. Each educator can adapt according to the work programme and the ability of the learners.

It is important for the educator to clearly define the requirements of the activity and guide the learners through each task.

Suggested time allocation:

Three to four lessons (One or two lessons for planning and preparation; one or two lessons for presentations.)

Homework:

Researching the topic.

Planning and preparing cue cards.

Practising the speech.

And now for the specific information – we are going to discuss an example and then you will have time to begin planning your own speech.

SPEECH TOPIC: This is a generic topic and the educator may want to expand or adapt it to suit each class.

“Choose a line from any well known Nursery Rhyme and present a two minute speech in which you explain your understanding of this line.”

Wow – this sounds like fun, but where to start?

Hmm.. Begin by breaking the question into specific instructions.

• It must be based on a line from a Nursery Rhyme.

• It must be two minutes long.

• It must show my personal opinion and understanding.

Let’s use the line Out came the Sun from “Itsy Bitsy Spider” and we can begin our planning.

My Granny Matilda used to say: “Proper Planning Prevents Poor Performance”, so let’s start by planning our speech out properly.

To do this, we make use of a MINDMAP – you will be using these quite a lot as a study aid as well.

Let’s put down our the thoughts that come to mind on a Mind Map. This helps us to order our thoughts and shows us the relationship(s) between our ideas.

This rhyme is about a spider who does not let unexpected difficulties destroy her life.

Include examples from my personal experience

Situations change, they don’t remain the same forever

The Sun represents hope

The sun represents warmth and happiness

The waterspout is all the challenges we must face in life

“Out came the Sun”

The rain refers to obstacles we have to deal with and overcome

English

Grade 8

The speech can now be structured around these points –

1. I start by explaining the rhyme (it’s a good idea to quote it in full).

2. Next I explain how it can be read as a metaphor for everyday life.

3. From here I connect it to my personal experience by describing how I deal with real problems that I face daily.

4. If I need to, I can expand the speech to include wider examples from the society I live in.

5. I conclude my speech by showing what I understand the meaning of this rhyme to be.

Of course, this is just one example of how a quote can be interpreted.

Each person will see something different in what they read. Your personality must show through what you say.

Now write down the quote that you chose:

Use this space to draw up a Mind Map of your chosen quote.

English

Grade 8

A good speech is divided into three parts –

1. A strong

introduction

which grabs the audience’s attention,

2. A developing

body

which provides substance and examples to prove your argument / show your interpretation

3. And a strong

conclusion

which ties up your speech and leaves the audience with thoughts on what you have said.

It is helpful to write out your speech in full, as though you were writing an essay, so that it can be edited and improved for presentation. Remember that a speech is an

oral presentation

and must not be read, so you must not read off a sheet of paper.

Writing the speech:

Using Cue Cards:

Once you have written out your speech, take some time to read over and correct it. You can add or remove information now to make the speech more effective.

When you are satisfied that the speech says all that you wanted to, take a highlighter and highlight words or phrases which form the basic outline of the speech – these are your

keywords

.

Transfer your keywords on to smaller cards, that can comfortably fit into your hand. These cards will have just enough information to remind you of what you want to say without allowing you to read the whole speech.

A good size for a cue card.

Remember to number these cards so that you can easily order your thoughts.

It helps to use a mirror so that you can see when you are not looking up at the audience, while also being able to see your facial expressions when you are speaking.

Using these cue cards, practise the speech, making sure that you can go through the whole speech without stopping or missing out information.

English

Grade 8

Assessment Note: The educator may want to allocate marks for the completion of different tasks within the activity as a means of keeping a check on the working being completed.

This can be done through checklists and peer assessment can be used. (Refer to assessment suggestions in the Writing

Module).

From the Mind Map you drew up on page 14, write a rough draft of your speech. When you are finished writing, read over and edit what you have written, adding or removing information.

Edited Rough Draft:

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Grade 8

Use your edited rough draft to highlight keywords and then transfer these on to cue cards.

Use the shapes below as examples for your cue cards.

English

Grade 8

Assessment for Module 1:

A prepared Oral

Now’s your chance to ruffle some tailfeathers! Stand eagle-proud and put that beak, um, mouth to good use!

There are basically three elements that are assessed when you present a speech:

1.

Your preparation and research.

Here the assessor will look at how well organised you are – Do you have cue cards? Do you know how to use the cue cards correctly? Is your content well researched and logically organised? Is it clear that you have practised your speech?

Remember to use formal language – no slang or casual phrases.

2.

Your stance and body language.

The assessor will look at how you stand (you should stand firmly, with your legs straight, holding your cue cards at chest height).

Remember: Only use your hands to emphasise a point, but not randomly. Do not move

around, sway or shift from foot to foot while you speak. Look up, do not speak down to your bellybutton! Speak directly to people in the audience, look into their eyes.

3.

The use of your voice and the actual presentation.

You need to use your voice appropriately: Speak clearly, at a good volume.

Vary the tone of your voice to make sure that you do not sound monotonous.

Remember: Reading either makes your tone flat and boring, or it makes you speak too quickly. Pause occasionally to give the audience time to take in what you have said.

Practise by asking someone to listen to the speech and giving you feedback. Always check the pronunciation of words!

Your teacher will assess you according to a specific rubric. Always read over the rubric and be aware of what the assessor is looking for in your speech.

The rubric will always relate to the Learning Outcomes which represent the skills that you need to demonstrate.

English

Grade 8

When assessing orals it is often helpful to have a guideline for what is being assessed. Obviously the Rubric is a guide, but the educator can also have a global expectation: Very few learners should be in the lowest levels for orals, unless they are unprepared or unable to speak. Thus, the levels can be used to guide marking as follows – Levels 1 and 2 are for learners who show a complete lack of skills or preparation.

Level 3 is for learners showing below average skills and preparation, while Levels 4 and 5 can be considered

“average” competency. Level 6 would be learners who show above average ability and commitment. Level 7 would be learners whose work is exceptional and far superior to the average.

CRITERIA 7

Outstanding

80 – 100

6

Meritorious

70 –79

5

Substantial

60 – 69

4

Adequate

50 – 59

3

Moderate

40 – 49

2

Elementary

30 – 39

1

Not achieved

0 – 29

1

Did the learner make appropriate use of cue cards?

Fluent, confident use of cue cards, leading to a very wellpresented speech.

Cue cards used in a fluent and unobtrusive way

Learner made appropriate use of cue cards

Learner made use of cue cards, but needs to practise to become more comfortable with it.

Cue cards there, but not used in an appropriate manner

Used a piece of paper

No cue cards

2

Comment on structure of speech.

Outstanding structure – dealt with all aspects clearly and comfortably

Good structural moments.

Clear structure evident; deal with it more fluently next time

Maintained structure, but certain aspects need more work.

Tried to maintain good structure, but one aspect not present.

Limited indication of structure.

No indication of structure.

3

Did the learner present a logical, convincing argument to the audience, using good vocabulary

Outstanding use of argument and vocabulary

– very convincing

Learner presented a logical, convincing argument using good vocabulary

Good argument

– work on your confidence.

Argument

audience?

Good eye contact throughout

Comfortable eye contact

Occasional eye contact

Forced eye contact

Minimal eye contact – very selfconscious

Eye contact only as an afterthought

No eye contact whatsoever

5

Was the learner able to amaze, amuse, entertain and/or educate the audience?

Excellent effort – not always logical, while vocabulary a bit limited at times

Argument only occasionally logical with very limited vocabulary.

Argument generally illogical and unconvincing: vocabulary needs a lot of work

Argument not convincing at all; no logic and very poor vocabulary

4

Did the learner make eye contact with the

audience captivated throughout

Good effort

– audience focused throughout

Fair effort

– audience listened politely.

Relax! You don’t have to be so nervous.

Not really

– you did not live up to your potential

You will not be able to maintain your audience’s attention if you are not focused!

Not at all

TOTAL: _________ / 35

ASSESSMENT RUBRIC FOR A PREPARED ORAL (Learning Outcome 1)

Learner’s Name: ________________________________________ Due Date:

________________

English

Grade 8

Learning Outcomes (or skills) we need to master is LO 3: Reading. Although we are going to focus on novel reading in this module, there are many different reasons for why we read:

Encourage the learners to suggest answers and examples to the following questions.

Emphasise the importance of evaluating and selecting appropriate answers for each.

1. We read for

information

, such as - (provide some examples of when we need to read for information) Reading news. Looking for information to complete certain tasks. Discovering knowledge in order to progress (such as research for school tasks). Also: for communication – sms, bbm, facebook, tweets. The sharing of ideas. Responding to other communication.

MODULE 2A

SPUD

by John van de Ruit

2. We read for

enjoyment or entertainment,

such as – Any appropriate examples of casual reading – newspapers, magazines, even internet jokes.

3. We read for

instructions or directions

, such as follow a recipe, reading maps, assembly instructions, answering questionnaires, filling in forms.

When we read and study novels, we are using different skills. Although we are reading for enjoyment as we find out what happens to the characters in the story, we can also interpret their actions and analyse the incidents. In other words we are reading for information and entertainment at the same time!

The specific skills or Assessment standards we need to address in this module are:

AS 2. Reads aloud and silently for a variety of purposes consolidating the appropriate reading strategies developed in earlier grades.

AS 3.Discusses the purpose, audience and context of a text.

AS 4.Shows understanding of information in texts:

• identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence;

• identifies and explains different points of view.

English

Grade 8

AS 5.Explains how key features and the organisation of different types of texts contribute to how the text functions.

AS 6.Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life by discussing the plot, themes, values, characters and setting.

ACTIVITY 1

Before discussing this activity, the teacher may want to allow the learners to research and collect information. Allow learners to compare and share what they have discovered. Discuss why the information varies. Allow the learners to compile their own biographies by summaries all the information available.

Discuss how the information creates expectations in the reader. How does it influence the reading of the novel?

Let’s begin with AS 3, by looking at the background to the novel

SPUD

by John van de Ruit

Background:

John van de Ruit

was born in Durban, South Africa.

He attended the prestigious boys’ school Michaelhouse in the Kwa-ZuluNatal Midlands and then studied further at the University of Natal to obtain a Masters degree in Drama and Performance. He received much acclaim as an actor and playwright from 1998.

Spud

, his first novel became a massive success when it was published in 2005, as were its two sequels

Spud: The Madness

Continues

(2007) and

Spud: Learning to Fly

(2009). Since then van de Ruit has worked on adapting the novel into a film in 2010, in which he had a short

cameo as one of Spud’s teachers. Van de Ruit has admitted that, although Spud is mostly fiction, there is a large element of

autobiography

in the story.

Define the term autobiography:

A. Context

You will need to do some research on the following topics. You may use any source available to you – the Internet, library books, even your parents for some of the questions!

English

Grade 8

This information will help to give you an understanding of the society and culture in which

John

Milton, a thirteen year old boy, lives in 1990. It could be informative and amusing to find specific examples for each topic.

Write down some information about each of the following:

1. The history of Michaelhouse. Allow learners to bring in information from internet and other sources. Discuss the kind of school Michaelhouse is, how a boarding school differs from a day school. Also look at where it is situated in the Kwa-Zulu Natal midlands. Consider how the geography of the area affects the school.

2. South Africa in 1990

– why was this such an important year? Emphasise 1990 as the year of change in South Africa with the unbanning of the ANC and the freeing of Nelson

Mandela. Relate this to Spud’s journey – a new school, a new life, new challenges. He symbolises the country.

3. South Africa in 1990

– The Culture (Music, Fashion, Movies, etc.) Encourage learners to investigate the time period and discuss what this shows about the values in society at the time, especially clothing and hair styles.

Play music from the period (suggestions: “U Can’t Touch This” by MC Hammer; “Vogue” by Madonna and “Nothing Compares to U” by Sinead O’Connor).

Discuss the films of the year: Julia Roberts in “Pretty Woman”; “Driving Miss Daisy” (Best

Film Oscar); “Look Who’s Talking”; “Ghost”; Arnold Schwarzenegger in “Total Recall”.

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Grade 8

B. The audience and purpose of this piece of writing

Encourage learners to make notes next to the images saying what they depict.

1. Consider the front cover designs of the first different Spud novels shown below:

Cover 1: Spud (2005) Cover 3: Learning to Fly (2009)

Cover 2: The Madness Continues (2007)

©Maragon Media 26

English

Grade 8

Questions:

1. What visual information is given about the character of Spud on the first cover?

Spud the innocent choirboy. He is about to enter a new phase in his life with challenges and he will have to grow quickly to survive.

2. Suggest a reason why the words “wickedly funny” seem to hand-written at the bottom of the first cover. What information is supplied by this? It entices the possible reader – because it’s handwritten it suggests that it is a comment by someone who has just read it.

3. What information is supplied about the content of the second and third novels from the illustrations on the two covers? Cover 2 suggests that

Spud’s life is still chaotic and upside down, yet he still seems playful and carefree. The third cover shows that Spud ’s life has changed – he looks older and bigger, there is the implication of him maturing and moving into the adult world.

4. Consider the titles of the second and third novels – what does each one imply about the character’s growth? The second suggests that Spud still has to struggle to survive his environment – “more of the same”, while the third suggests that he is discovering freedom, moving forward with his life.

Now – read the first three diary entries (Monday 17th January , Tuesday 18th January and Wednesday 19th January).

5. Who do you think the target audience for this novel would be? Why? A good answer will recognise that it would attract a wide audience from young boys (and girls) who are experiencing Spud’s challenges to adults who might be attracted by remembering their own schooldays. It is about families, therefore it can apply to anyone.

6. What do you think the author’s purpose was for writing this novel? A good answer will recognise the entertainment value but also the autobiography implied. Also the comment on South African society at the time (and today).

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Grade 8

7. From the first few diary entries, do you think the author has succeeded in his intentions? Provide a reasoned argument. This is a broad question and the teacher must emphasise the importance of providing proof to substantiate an opinion. Whatever the learner answers there must be justification based on the text.

This is a broad question and the teacher must emphasise the importance of providing proof to substantiate an opinion. Whatever the learner answers there must be justification based on the text.

ACTIVITY 2

Let’s consider AS 6: Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life by discussing the plot, themes, values, characters and setting.

A: Making Summaries

Although your teacher will read some of the novel with you in class, it is important that you read the whole text on your own so that you understand all the information related to it.

In order to help you keep track of the story, you can use the following template to fill in

(Keep a collection of summaries in your file) –

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Grade 8

SPUD Reading Summary

The educator can decide on how the summaries should be done – a good suggestion would be to divide the novel up according to months. The first section can be done together in class as an example and then dates can be set for the completion of the others. Encourage the learners to supply important details, though they should not attempt to retell the entire story. Also emphasise the need to analysis why each event or incident appears in the novel. Learners must be able to explain how each event shows development of the characters.

Chapter / Section / Title & Pages:

____________________________________________________

Who (Characters):

________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______

What happened and How:

__________________________________________________________

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______

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Where and When:

________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______

Why: (Think of the author’s intentions)________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______

_________________________________________________________________________

______

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Grade 8

B: The Structure of the novel

Read the following discussion of the novel’s structure and then answer the questions that follow.

Spud by John van de Ruit

(First published in 2005 and a hugely successful book - first of several in the fictional ‘life’ of the writer,

John “Spud” Milton and his schoolfriends, the Crazy Eight. )

Van de Ruit replicates a conventional diary form, school terms and annual holidays. The entries are fairly short and create a published ‘novel’, although it is not strictly true that a journal fits the genre of the novel form at all. What comes out at the end is an easily readable work of fiction - intimate and poignant at times and with a sharp humorous content, much of it satirical of the early years of the

“new South Africa” and the people in it.

The writer of the diary (and remember that we have two ‘writers’ here (Spud and van de Ruit) is fictional - an adolescent boy of 13 who decides to keep a diary as he begins a new life at a boys’ boarding school. The diary spans a period of the school year (January to 1st December). The reader is able to ‘peek’ into a few months of an adolescent boy’s life.

The entries are very irregular and most are quite short, which is realistic. They are also extremely self-centred and naive - again sustaining the realism and audience appeal. The narrator is, of course, flawed, as we would expect from the generic form. Spud sees only what he wants to see and ignores things which are obvious to the reader, thus intensifying the dramatic irony which is an inherent part of this type of writing.

Notice how the writer has used certain

terminology

to make the discussion

formal

and

literary

.

It is necessary for you to learn and use these terms in your writing too.

Provide a short definition for each of the following words:

Genre – a category or style of storytelling.

Generic – a clear and basic example of a specific category or genre. Lacks uniqueness or originality.

Satirical – a deliberate mocking of an idea, belief or behaviour to highlight its absurdity.

English

Grade 8

Now, using the novel for examples, discuss the characteristics of a diary entry:

Use the novel to explain the format of a diary entry. Emphasise the necessity of supplying a date and stress the informality of the writing: The entry is an individual’s reflections on the events in a specific time of his/her life. It therefore contains opinion and individual experience.

C. The Characters:

Write brief character sketches of each of these characters – describe their personalities along with their physical appearance.

When drawing up character sketches it is important to emphasise that it is more about the character’s personality traits than physical appearance. The characteristics mentioned should be supported by reference to behaviour or statements which show the character’s attitudes and values. Discuss the different types of characters: Three dimensional characters change and grow according to their experiences, whereas one and two dimensional characters show limited growth. Encourage learners to assess whether each character is a minor or major character, ask for justification.

SPUD:

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Grade 8

SPUD’S PARENTS:

INNOCENT, THE MAID:

“WOMBAT”, SPUD’S GRANDMOTHER:

THE CRAZY EIGHT:

RAMBO:

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Grade 8

MAD DOG:

RAIN MAN:

GECKO:

“FATTY”:

SIMON:

VERN:

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Grade 8

BOGGO:

“THE GLOCK”

SPARERIB:

“THE GUV”

DEBBIE, “THE MERMAID”:

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Grade 8

AMANDA:

CHRISTINE:

PIKE:

LUTHULI:

OTHER CHARACTERS:

English

Grade 8

Emphasise that events and incidents are only important in the context of how they develop or reveal character. It is not enough to know the sequence of events without being able to explain the meaning of each. Encourage learners to judge the correctness of behaviour in each incident and also to predict the consequences for each action.

Look at each event in the context of Spud’s development.

D. MAIN EVENTS:

Discuss each of these events and explain what they teach us about the character of Spud and the people around him.

SPUD’S ARRIVAL AT THE SCHOOL:

THE NIGHTSWIM:

VISITING THE GUV:

(THE GUV”S STORY)

English

Grade 8

THE GHOST OF MACARTHUR:

MEETING THE MERMAID:

PLAYING SPORT (CRICKET AND RUGBY):

English

Grade 8

PERFORMING IN “OLIVER”:

SPUD AND THE GIRLS IN HIS LIFE:

GECKO’S STORY:

English

Grade 8

LESSONS LEARNT IN THE FIRST YEAR:

E. THEMES OF THE NOVEL:

Discuss what the novel shows us about each of these experiences.

Accentuate the importance of understanding the themes in a story. These provide a meaning which the reader can apply to his or her life. Ask learners whether the themes have helped them understand their own experiences better.

FINDING ACCEPTANCE, BEING PART OF THE GROUP: A very relevant theme for Grade 8s finding their place in High School. Ask learners to compare their experiences with

Spud’s.

GROWING UP AND FINDING YOUR OWN VOICE: Again, the most relevant theme for a teenager – ask whether learners agree with Spud’s growth. Is it believable? Learners must supply evidence.

English

Grade 8

THE IMPORTANCE OF FRIENDSHIP: Allow learners to relate this theme to their own experience.

THE IMPORTANCE OF READING: Ask learners to comment on Spud’s reading habits in relation to their own. Discuss the novels’ position on the importance of books and reading. This can be connected to the Argumentative Writing activity on Reading.

Spud (Troye Sivan) and The Guv (John Cl eese): “A good book will never die on you …”

English

Grade 8

DEALING WITH CULTURAL, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE: Apply this theme to

Current Affairs and encourage learners to discuss and comment on relevant news stories. Ask learners to motivate which of the stories will be relevant in twenty years.

Connect this with what Spud learns about change in society.

Assessment 1: Writing a Diary Entry

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 1

Demonstrates basic skills in a range of features of writing appropriate to the text type

(e.g. reveals character, establishes the setting and develops the plot in narrative and descriptive writing, and uses simple imagery in poetry).

Prepare learners for this activity throughout the reading of the novel. Encourage learners to think of events in their daily lives which could be worth recording.

Emphasise the need to record details and explain their significance. Possibly allow learners to write rough entries and later edit them into a final selection.

Complete a series of five diary entries for final assessment. Your diary entries may skip days or have consecutive days present in them, but ensure that you have five different entries of at least

100 words each in your final piece of writing. Make sure that:

• you make your entries as interesting as possible, but real (i.e. do not write a soap opera!

Your writing must be realistic and link up with your life and your experiences);

• your writing is free of spelling and other language errors (proof read your work!);

entries

Interesting entries

Interesting entries, but don’t become side tracked.

Tried to make the entries interesting but lost focus.

Generally boring.

Very boring and unimaginative

2 Realistic entries

Outstanding realism – entries give the reader a better insight into the mind and life of the

• each entry has an introduction, body and conclusion;

• you make use of descriptive language – try to say things in an interesting way.

English

Grade 8

RUBRIC for Assignment

Date assignment was issued: _________________

Due date for assignment: _________________

The following rubric will be used to assess your work:

CRITERIA Outstanding

7

Meritorious

6

Substantial

5

Adequate

4

Moderate

3

Elementary

2

Not achieved

1

1 Interesting entries

Outstanding entries – interesting, entertaining and readable.

Interesting, readable

structured in a readerfriendly manner.

Good use of structural elements.

One of structural elements not evident

Two of structural elements not clear

Structure not clear

Lack of structure had a negative impact on meaning.

4 Language usage

Excellent use of language; mature use of vocabulary, writer.

Very realistic Generally entries are very realistic

Tries to be realistic, but every now and then it gets a bit over the top

Some entries not realistic or plausible at all

Are you sure you’re a real person?

Totally farfetched

3 Structure

(beginning, development, ending).

Excellent flow of all three stages, guiding reader into an enjoyable reading experience

Writing carefully and logically

diction and register needs serious attention.

Poor language usage: vocabulary, diction and register weakly manipulated.

5 Descriptive language used

Good, controlled use of descriptive language in

8 to 10 of entries.

Attempt at descriptive language in at least 6 to 7 of the entries.

Attempt at diction and language

Confident use of language; vocabulary range, diction and register above average

Good choice of language

– shows vocabulary range and uses correct diction and register

Fair choice of language, although vocabulary, diction or range can be developed more.

Vocabulary, diction and register need work.

Limited language usage: vocabulary,

descriptive language in at least 5 of the entries

Descriptive language used in 4 of entries

Descriptive language used in 3 of entries

Descriptive language used in 1 to 2 entries.

No descriptive language at all

TOTAL: _________ / 35

English

Grade 8

On an A4 sheet of paper, draw the book’s character tree.

Make sure that you:

• indicate the major characters in one colour – indicate why you chose that colour;

• the minor characters in another colour – indicate why you used that colour;

• the links between the various characters by means of connecting lines, as well as short captions;

• work clearly and neatly – your work must be interesting and informative to someone who has just started to read the book.

Assessment 2: Character Tree For Spud by John van de Ruit

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

Produces a range of factual written and multimodal texts (texts using print and images) for various purposes, using a range of visual, and design elements where appropriate by means of recounts of events, research project reports, pamphlets, posters, and book reviews.

English

Grade 8

RUBRIC for Assignment

Date assignment was issued: _________________

Due date for assignment: _________________

The following rubric will be used to assess your work:

CRITERIA Outstanding

7

Meritorious

6

Substantial

5

Adequate

but choice of some could be argued

Used colour, but not very clearly.

Motivation hazy.

Limited and random use of colour. No motivation

No use of colour; no motivation

2 Did you indicate the minor characters in another colour?

Clearly indicated minor characters with clear motivation

Used colour to indicate minor character

4

Moderate

3

Elementary

2

Not achieved

1

1 Did you indicate the major characters in one colour?

Clearly indicated major characters with clear motivation

Used colour to indicate major characters with short motivation as to why.

Used colour to indicate major characters

Used colour to indicate major characters,

Clear lines and insightful, informative captions.

Clear lines and very informative but short captions.

Lines and captions

Lines and captions, but untidy and random.

Lines, but no captions

Lines unclear; no captions.

No lines or captions.

4 Was your work neat and clear?

Professional layout and presentation

Neat, clear with short motivation as to why.

Used colour to indicate minor characters

Used colour to indicate minor characters, but choice of some could be argued.

Used colour, but not very clearly.

Motivation hazy

Limited and random use of colour. No motivation.

No use of colour; no motivation

3 Did you indicate the links between the different colours by means of connecting lines and short captions?

and very comprehensive

Neat and clear Neat, but could be clearer

Incomplete and a bit confusing

Muddled with a lot of gaps

Untidy, messy and incomplete

5 Was your final product informative?

Very informative and useful product: may

I use it in my class?

Informative and useful as teaching tool.

Informative final product.

Aspects are informative

Had moments, but generally a bit confusing rather than enlightening

Read the book again.

Not at all

TOTAL: _________ / 35

English

Grade 8

You will be given a diary extract from Spud to prepare. This you will then have to read in front of the class.

Make sure that your presentation contains the following:

• eye contact with the audience at regular intervals

• interesting intonation and interpretation of the reading matter

• good voice projection (we must all be able to hear you)

• appropriate pausing and phrasing

ASSESSMENT 3: Prepared Reading

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: READING – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

Reads aloud and silently for a variety of purposes consolidating the appropriate reading strategies developed in earlier grades.

TASK PERFORMED OR

WEIGHT SCORE

1 Did you make regular eye contact with the audience? 4

2 Did you work on an interesting intonation while you read?

4

3 Did you try to interpret the passage while you were you reading?

4

4 Did you have good voice projection? 4

5 Did you make use of appropriate pausing and phrasing? 4

TOTAAL / 20

Comprehension: Spud by John van de Ruit

Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow on a separate sheet of paper:

ASSESSMENT 4: Comprehension Test

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: READING – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4S

hows understanding of information texts: identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence; identifies and explains different points of view.

English

Grade 8

Wednesday 12th April

I decided to prepare myself for the limelight with twenty questions that the world will need to know about me.

Name:

John Howard Milton

Age:

13 (nearly 14)

Nickname:

Spud

Date of Birth:

20 April 1976

Star sign:

Aries (although some dodgy astrologers insist on calling me a Taurus)

Favourite food:

Cheddar cheese

Favourite drink:

Vanilla milkshake

Favourite film:

Pretty Woman

Favourite actress:

Julia Roberts

Favourite actor:

Myself (ha ha)

Favourite book:

The Lord of the Rings (I haven’t finished it yet but The Guv said it is the best book ever so I would rate it above Catch 22)

Worst book:

The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole (Any boy’s diary written by a woman called Sue

Townsend is not to be trusted.) Adrian Mole is a raving nerd who would never last one day in our dormitory. Even Gecko is less cowardly than this Lucozade-drinking pill popping, pimply pom! (I did think the book was hilarious though.)

Greatest Achievement:

Kissing the Mermaid – and I suppose winning a scholarship wasn’t too bad

Favourite sport:

Cricket

Most embarrassing moment:

Any public gathering with my parents

Funniest moment:

Any one of The Guv’s English lessons

Future plans:

To establish myself as a great actor, writer and scholar

Something your fans wouldn’t know about you:

I keep a diary

Who would you most like to be:

Julia Robert’s boyfriend

Who would you most like to meet:

Nelson Mandela

Questions:

1. In your own words, explain Spud’s reasons for drawing up this list. (2)

2. Why do you think it’s important to him to put “(nearly 14)” after his age? (2)

3.1. Give a definition for the word “dodgy”. (1)

3.2. Identify the part of speech for this word in the phrase “some dodgy astrologers”. (1)

4. Explain why he puts “(ha ha)” after saying he is his own favourite actor. (2)

5. What does Spud’s comment about Lord of the Rings show about his attitude to The

Guv? (2)

6. Why does Spud believe that Adrian Mole’s diary cannot be trusted? (1)

7. Do you agree with Spud’s assessment of Adrian Mole. Give reasons. (2)

English

Grade 8

8. Identify the figure of speech used in the phrase “pill popping, pimply pom”. (1)

9. Explain why Spud’s Greatest Achievement could be seen as humorous.

Was it really such a great achievement? (2)

10. What does the order of his achievements tell you about his priorities? (2)

11. From what you have read of Spud, do you believe his Future Plans are realistic?

Motivate your answer with reference to the novel. (3)

12. After examining this passage, judge the extent to which Spud knows himself and whether he is being honest in his responses. (4)

TOTAL: 25 marks

SPUD EXTENSION EXERCISE

LEARNING OUTCOME 3

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 8

Responds critically to texts:

• discusses writer’s point of view;

• discusses implicit (or hidden) messages in the text, as well as bias or prejudice;

• discusses how context influences the message;

• identifies what has been left out of the text and discusses why;

• questions whether learner agrees with the messages in the text.

Read the following extract:

IS SPUD A DUD?

Or has it grown wings? By Lin Sampson

There are a lot of things in life that are inexplicable but the most extraordinary is that my hero actor John Cleese should consent to be in the movie of the book Spud by John van de

Ruit, a plodding read with its relentless funniness, its clichéd schoolboy escapades, its farts and lavatoryjoke narrative, its stereotypical characters; the schoolmaster with homosexual leanings, the

English teacher with alcoholic tendencies. It was a real wade-through.

I might be doing Van de Ruit an injustice because after the reading it I realised it was probably a book for teens, but it didn’t even sparkle within the genre of school novels such as

Flashman (a

great favourite) or the great Mr Chips. It was a sort of bad crib of Adrian Mole, which spanned the adult/child horizon where parents recognise the horror of their offspring.

Much more moving than the book spud is the story of making the movie (The Making of

Spud the

Movie by John van de Ruit and Ross Garland), a gritty experience of solid endeavour fuelled by off-the-chains confidence (something Van de Ruit has in shedloads) and furious optimism.

English

Grade 8

The film was written and directed by Donovan Marsh, and judging from this account, it was Marsh who focused the ragged storyline. As Van de Ruit says: “Crucially, it was Don who finally told me what my book was about, which allowed him to settle on the driving motif for the film.

One word explained it all: acceptance.”

The story of Spud’s quest for acceptance bound the disparate characters and storylines together.

The team, or the Four Horsemen, as they called themselves – Van de Ruit and Marsh and producers Ross Garland and Brad Logan, were not lacking in chutzpah.

“I knew in my heart that we had to push for an international star,” says Van de Ruit.

“We decided to take one more stab in the dark. All hopes rested on Basil Fawlty.”

If they got Cleese, they would get a movie. Cleese agreed and as this novice team took on old pros, they began to understand that the film business is a game of tactics. This brilliant, finicky superstar, according to Van de Ruit, decided to play “The Guv” without affectation. He writes:

“There is something broken about Cleese’s Guv, and his instinct to explore the dignity and fragility of the English teacher has created a rich and delightful character that is all the more beguiling because of this.”

Pity that didn’t come across in the book.

Judging by the pictures in this book on making the film, Spud has a real big movie feel, professional and glossy. And as far as I am concerned, anything starring John Cleese and

Jeremy

Crutchley has got to be worth seeing. There is every reason to believe that Marsh – with the help of Cleese – will turn a mediocre book into a masterpiece.

Adapted from an article in The Sunday Times Lifestyle, 5 December 2010.

In a short paragraph, discuss your response to Lin Sampson’s opinion of Spud. Do you agree with her assessment of the book? What differences are there between her experience of the novel and your own?

English

Grade 8

EXTENSION ASSESSMENT:

LEARNING OUTCOME 3

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4

Shows understanding of information in texts:

• identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence; identifies and explains different points of view.

Read the song lyrics of “Nightswimming” and answer the questions that follow.

nightswimming deserves a quiet night photograph on the dashboard taken years ago turned around in the windshield shows every streetlight reveals a picture in reverse still it’s so much clearer

I forgot my shirt at the water’s edge the moon is low tonight nightswimming deserves a quiet night

I’m not sure these people understand it’s not like years ago the fear of getting caught of recklessness and water they cannot see me naked these things they go away replaced by everyday nightswimming remembering the night september’s coming soon

I’m pining for the moon and what if there were two side by side in orbit around the fairest sun that tight bright forever drum could not describe nightswimming you I thought I knew you you I cannot judge you I thought you knew me

English

Grade 8

this one laughing quietly underneath my breath

nightswimming the photograph reflects every streetlight a reminder nightswimming deserves a quiet night

words by Michael Stipe from AUTOMATIC FOR THE PEOPLE by R.E.M, 1992.

1. What is the name of the band that plays this song? (1)

2.1. To what extent do these lyrics capture the feeling of the Crazy Eight and theirexperience? (2)

2.2. Quote two lines which express their feelings. (2)

3.1. What do you think the writer meant by the lines “these things they go away /replaced by everyday”? (2)

3.2. Would you say that this is accurate in terms of the novel? Explain. (2)

4. Suggest reasons why “nightswimming / deserves a quiet night”. (2)

5. Comment on the lines “you I thought I knew you / you I cannot judge / you I thought I knew you” In relation to the characters in the Crazy Eight. (4)

Now listen to the song (the best place to find it is on Automatic For the People by

R.E.M., released by Warner Bros. Music in 1992).

LEARNING OUTCOME 1 – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 1

Listens to and appreciates challenging imaginative and informative oral texts (e.g. poems, praise poems, two- or three-episode stories and radio dramas, short talks, radio advertisements, debates).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

Listens actively and carefully for specific information and main ideas, and responds appropriately, for example:

• takes notes, summarises and draws conclusions;

• reflects on opinions, asks searching questions and challenges where necessary.

LEARNING OUTCOME 1 – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5

Identifies the speaker’s reasons for choosing particular words, phrases and sentences to influence the listener and explains their impact (e.g. persuasive language, distinguishing between fact and opinion, identifying the speaker’s point of view, and recognising bias and prejudice).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 6

Recognises and accepts a wide range of different varieties of the language such as different accents and dialects and discusses the language of different age groups (e.g. slang).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 7

Identifies the values and historical, social and cultural contexts of different texts.

English

Grade 8

11. How does the tone of the music give the listener clues to the meaning of the song? (2)

12.1. Who is the speaker (singer) meant to be? (1)

12.2. How would you describe the speaker’s attitude or tone? (1)

12.3. Give a word or phrase which helps you to identify this (remember that we are talking about the song so you can comment on the music and voice). (1)

12.4. Does this tone add to the meaning of the lyrics? Explain your opinion. (2)

12.5. Is this tone appropriate to the characters in the story? (1)

13. How does hearing the words help the listener to identify with the character’s story? (2)

25 marks

EXTENSION ACTIVITY 3: A Mini-Essay

View the film version of SPUD and then answer the following question in the form of a one page essay (about 300 words long):

Having read the novel and then seen the film, assess the effectiveness of the adaptation.

Use these questions as a guide for what to write about:

• Did the film remain faithful to the storyline of the novel? If changes were made were they necessary and effective? Is the story well told and interesting?

• Are the characters in the film believable? Do they represent the characters in the novel well?

• What changes were made in the adaptation? Why were these changes made?

• Which did you prefer – the film or the novel? Why?

Remember to plan your work thoroughly. Be clear on the argument you are making and try to convince the reader that your opinion is correct by using examples from the novel and film.

This rubric can be used to assess your writing: (You can ask one of your classmates to assess the work unless your teacher decides to mark it.)

Criteria Marks Description

1. Knowledge of the film and novel.

2. Ability to make a convincing argument.

3. Appropriate use of language.

19, 20

18

Clear understanding of the film and the novel. All thoughts are expressed clearly and supported by examples. Few, minor mistakes.

16, 17

14, 15

Good understanding of the film and novel, but not always clearly expressed. Some problems with spelling and grammar.

12, 13 Has read the novel and watched the film but struggles to make a clear argument about them. Many unnecessary mistakes.

10, 11 Does not show much knowledge of the film and novel. Very few examples are given and are not explored in detail. Writing mistakes create confusion.

8, 9 Has very little knowledge of the novel and film. Tell the story instead of explaining or arguing. Many writing mistakes.

5, 6, 7 Can only tell parts of the story. Very little discussion. Many writing errors.

1, 2, 3 Tells some story but it is confused and incomplete. No argument or discussion. Writing mistakes make the work hard to follow.

TOTAL: ______ / 20

English

Grade 8

MODULE 2B

Novel Reading

I simply love a good book – I prefer using my own imagination when picturing the characters and places described in books to those in movies!

My mom, the Lady Melany used to read to us as little chicks – I could not wait for story time

The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole Aged 13 ¾

by Sue Townsend

As we know, one of the most important Learning Outcomes (or skills) we need to master is

LO

3: Reading.

Although we are going to focus on novel reading in this module, there are many different reasons for why we read:

1. We read for

information

, such as - (provide some examples of when we need to read for information)

2. We read for

enjoyment or entertainment

, such as –

3. We read for instructions or directions, such as

When we read and study novels, we are using different skills. Although we are reading for enjoyment as we find out what happens to the characters in the story, we can also interpret their actions and analyse the incidents. In other words we are reading for information and entertainment at the same time!

The specific skills or Assessment standards we need to address in this module are:

English

Grade 8

AS 2.

Reads aloud and silently for a variety of purposes consolidating the appropriate reading strategies developed in earlier grades.

AS 3.

Discusses the purpose, audience and context of a text.

AS 4.

Shows understanding of information in texts:

• identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence;

• identifies and explains different points of view.

AS 5.

Explains how key features and the organisation of different types of texts contribute to how the text functions.

AS 6.

Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life by discussing the plot, themes, values, characters and setting.

ACTIVITY 1

Let’s begin with AS 3, by looking at the background to the novel

The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole Aged 13 ¾

by Sue Townsend

Background:

Sue Townsend

is a writer from England who became famous for her novels about Adrian

Mole, a boy growing up in England in the 1980s. There are now eight books in the series, from

The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole Aged 13 ¾

(first published in 1982) to

Adrian Mole The

Prostrate Years

(2009) when he is now 39 ¼.

She has also published other novels, an autobiography (

The Public Confessions of a

Middleaged

Woman Aged 55¾

) and is well known as a playwright in England.

Define the term

autobiography

:

English

Grade 8

A. Context

You will need to do some research on the following topics. You may use any source available to you – the Internet, library books, even your parents for some of the questions!

This information will help to give you an understanding of the society and culture in which

Adrian

Mole, a thirteen year old boy, lives in 1982. It could be informative and amusing to find specific examples for each topic.

Write down some information about each of the following:

1.

Sue Townsend’s

personal history.

2.

England in the 1980s – Politics

(eg. Who was Prime Minister?)

3.

England in the 1980s – The Culture

(Music, Fashion, Movies, etc.)

English

Grade 8

1. Consider the front covers of the two different editions of the novel shown.

B. The audience and purpose of this piece of writing

Cover 1

Cover 2

Cover 2

is from the 2002 reprinting of

The Secret

Diary

by Puffin Books.

Cover 1

is from the 1985 edition of the first two Adrian

Mole books -

The Secret

Diary

and

The

Growing Pains of Adrian

Mole

- published by Methuen

Books.

English

Grade 8

4. What information about Adrian Mole do we learn from the illustrations on these two covers?

5. Argue which of the two covers is more attractive to a possible reader.

Give clear reasons for your choice.

Now – read the first three diary entries

(Thursday January 1st, Friday January 2nd and Saturday January 3rd).

Questions:

1. What does the word “diary” tell you about this story?

2. Suggest a reason why the author chose to call this “The

Secret

Diary ...”

3. Explain how the last two words (“aged 13 ¾”) make the title more interesting.

English

Grade 8

6. Who do you think the target audience for this novel would be? Why?

7. What do you think the author’s purpose was for writing this novel?

8. From the first few diary entries, do you think the author has succeeded in her intentions?

Provide a reasoned argument.

ACTIVITY 2

Let’s consider

AS 6

: Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life by discussing the plot, themes, values, characters and setting.

A: Making Summaries

Although your teacher will read some of the novel with you in class, it is important that you read the whole text on your own so that you understand all the information related to it.

In order to help you keep track of the story, you can use the following template to fill in

(Keep a collection of summaries in your file) –

English

Grade 8

ADRIAN MOLE Reading Summary

Chapter / Section / Title & Pages:________________________________

Who (Characters): ____________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

What happened and How: ______________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

Where and When: ____________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

Why: (Think of the author’s intentions)____________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

English

Grade 8

B: The Structure of the novel

Read the following discussion of the novel’s structure and then answer the questions that follow.

The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole by S Townsend

(First published in 1982 and a hugely successful book - first of several in the fictional ‘life’ of the writer, Adrian Mole. )

Sue Townsend replicates a conventional diary form, with references to Bank

Holidays and various traditional Christian holidays. The entries are shorter and

Townsend’s intention from the outset is to create a published ‘novel’, although it is not strictly true that a journal fits the

genre

of the novel form at all. I think she is deliberately trying to copy a

generic

style with a particular

satirical

intention

- to mock various issues of the Thatcher years. What comes out at the end is an easily readable work of fiction - intimate and

poignant

at times and with a sharp humorous content, but more of that later.

The writer of the diary (and remember that we have two ‘writers’ here - Adrian and

Townsend) is fictional - an adolescent boy of 13¾ who decides to keep a diary (a

Christmas present ) as his New Year’s resolution. The diary spans a period of 15 months, from January 1st 1982 to April 3rd 1983. The fact that it is a ‘Secret Diary’ indicates a typically adolescent attitude and makes the work immediately accessible to the reader, because ironically, of course it is not ‘Secret’ at all. The reader is able to ‘peek’ into fifteen months of an adolescent boy’s life.

The entries are very irregular and most are quite short, which is realistic. They are also extremely self-centred and naive - again sustaining the realism and audience

appeal. The narrator is, of course, flawed, as we would expect from the generic form. Adrian Mole sees only what he wants to see and ignores things which are obvious to the reader, thus intensifying the dramatic irony which is an inherent part of this type of writing.

Notice how the writer has used certain

terminology

to make the discussion

formal

and

literary.

It is necessary for you to learn and use these terms in your writing too.

Provide a short definition for each of the following words:

Genre _______________________________________________________________

Generic ______________________________________________________________

Satirical _____________________________________________________________

Poignant ____________________________________________________________

Naive _______________________________________________________________

English

Grade 8

Now, using the novel for examples, discuss the characteristics of a diary entry:

Assessment 1: Writing a Diary Entry

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 1

Demonstrates basic skills in a range of features of writing appropriate to the text type

(e.g. reveals character, establishes the setting and develops the plot in narrative and descriptive writing, and uses simple imagery in poetry).

Complete a series of five diary entries for final assessment.

Your diary entries may skip days or have consecutive days present in them, but ensure that you have five different entries of at least 100 words each in your final piece of writing.

Make sure that:

• you make your entries as interesting as possible, but real (i.e. do not write a soap opera!

Your writing must be realistic and link up with your life and your experiences);

• your writing is free of spelling and other language errors (proof read your work!);

• each entry has an introduction, body and conclusion;

• you make use of descriptive language – try to say things in an interesting way.

English

Grade 8

RUBRIC for Assignment

Date assignment was issued: _________________

Due date for assignment: _________________

The following rubric will be used to assess your work:

CRITERIA 7

Outstanding

6

Meritorious

5

Substantial

4

Adequate

3

Moderate

2

Elementary

1

Not achieved

1

Interesting entries

Outstanding entries – interesting, entertaining and readable

Interesting, readable entries

Interesting entries

Interesting entries, but don’t become side tracked.

Tried to make the entries interesting but lost focus

Generally boring.

Very boring and unimaginative

2

Realistic entries

Outstanding realism – entries give the reader a better insight into the mind and life of the writer.

Very realistic

Generally entries are very realistic

Tries to be realistic, but every now and then it gets a bit over the top

Some entries not realistic or

not clear

Structure not clear

Lack of structure had a negative impact on meaning

4

Language usage

Excellent use of language; mature use of vocabulary, diction and language

Confident use of language; plausible at all

Are you sure you’re a real person?

Totally farfetched.

3

Structure

(beginning, development, ending).

Excellent flow of all three stages, guiding reader into an enjoyable reading experience

Writing carefully and logically structured in a readerfriendly manner

Good use of structural elements.

One of structural elements not evident

Two of structural elements

diction and register needs serious attention.

Poor language usage: vocabulary, diction and register weakly manipulated.

5

Descriptive language used

Good, controlled use of descriptive language in

8 to 10 of entries

Attempt at descriptive language in at least 6 to 7 of the vocabulary range, diction and register above average

Good choice of language

– shows vocabulary range and uses correct diction and register

Fair choice of language, although vocabulary, diction or range can be developed more

Vocabulary, diction and register need work.

Limited language usage: vocabulary,

entries.

Attempt at descriptive language in at least

5 of the entries

Descriptive language used in 4 of entries

Descriptive language used in 3 of entries

Descriptive language used in 1 to 2 entries

No descriptive language at all

LEARNER’S NAME: TOTAL: _________ / 35

English

Grade 8

Assessment 2:

Character Tree for

The Secret Diary Of Adrian Mole Age 13 3/4

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

Produces a range of factual written and multimodal texts (texts using print and images) for various purposes, using a range of visual, and design elements where appropriate by means of recounts of events, research project reports, pamphlets, posters, and book reviews

.

On an

A4 sheet of paper

, draw the book’s character tree.

Make sure that you:

• indicate the major characters in one colour – indicate why you chose that colour;

• the minor characters in another colour – indicate why you used that colour;

• the links between the various characters by means of connecting lines, as well as short captions;

• work clearly and neatly – your work must be interesting and informative to someone who has just started to read the book.

Are you what they call a character tree?

English

Grade 8

CRITERIA 7

Outstanding

6

Meritorious

5

Substantial

4

Adequate

3

Moderate

2

Elementary

1

Not achieved

1

Did you indicate the major characters in one colour?

Clearly indicated major characters with clear motivation

Used colour to indicate major characters with short motivation as to why.

Used colour to indicate major characters

Used colour to indicate major characters, but choice of some could be argued

Used colour, but not very clearly.

Motivation hazy

Limited and random use of colour. No motivation

No use of colour; no motivation

2

Did you indicate the minor characters in another colour?

Clearly indicated minor characters with clear motivation

Used colour to indicate minor character with short motivation as to why.

Used colour to indicate minor characters

Used colour to indicate minor characters, but choice of some could be argued

Used colour, but not very clearly.

Motivation hazyl

Limited and random use of colour. No motivation

No use of colour; no motivation.

3

Did you indicate the links between the different colours by means of connecting lines and short captions

Clear lines and insightful, informative captions

Clear lines and very informative but short captions

Lines and captions.

comprehensive

Neat and clear

Neat, but could be clearer

Incomplete and a bit confusing

Muddled with a lot of gaps

Untidy, messy and incomplete

5

Was your final product informative?

Very informative and useful product: may I use it in my class?

Informative and useful as

Lines and captions, but untidy and random

Lines, but no captions

Lines unclear; no captions

No lines or captions.

4

Was your work neat and clear?

Professional layout and presentation

Neat, clear and very teaching tool

Informative final product.

Aspects are informative

Had moments, but generally a bit confusing rather than

enlightening

Read the book again

Not at all

LEARNER’S NAME: TOTAL: _________ / 35

RUBRIC for Assignment

Date assignment was issued: _________________

Due date for assignment: _________________

The following rubric will be used to assess your work:

English

Grade 8

ASSESSMENT 3: Prepared Reading

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: READING – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

Reads aloud and silently for a variety of purposes consolidating the appropriate reading strategies developed in earlier grades.

You will be given a diary extract from Adrian Mole to prepare. This you will then have to read in front of the class.

Make sure that your presentation contains the following:

• eye contact with the audience at regular intervals

• interesting intonation and interpretation of the reading matter

• good voice projection (we must all be able to hear you)

• appropriate pausing and phrasing

RUBRIC for Assignment

Date assignment was issued: _________________

Due date for assignment: _________________

The following task list will be used to assess your work:

TASK PERFORMED

 or



WEIGHT SCORE

1 Did you make regular eye contact with the audience? 4

2 Did you work on an interesting intonation while you read?

4

3 Did you try to interpret the passage while you were you reading?

4

4 Did you have good voice projection? 4

5 Did you make use of appropriate pausing and phrasing? 4

LEARNER’S NAME: TOTAL:

20

ASSESSMENT 4: Comprehension Test

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: READING – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4

You’ll have to be able to show understanding of information texts: identify main ideas and explain how the details support the main idea; question ideas where appropriate; make judgements and draw conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence and identify and explain different points of view.

Comprehension: The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole Aged 13 ¾.

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

English

Grade 8

10

15

20

25

Friday December 25th

CHRISTMAS DAY

1

5

30

35

40

Got up at 5 a.m. to have a ride on my racing bike. My father paid for it with

American Express. I couldn’t ride it far because of the snow, but it didn’t matter. I just like looking at it. My father had written on the gift tag attached to the handlebars, ‘Don’t leave it out in the rain this time’ – as if I would!

My parents had severe hangovers, so I took them breakfast in bed and gave them my presents at the same time. My mother was overjoyed with her eggtimer and my father was equally delighted with his bookmark, in fact everything was going OK until I casually mentioned that Bert and Queenie were my guests for the day, and would my father mind getting out of bed and picking them up in his car.

The row went on until the lousy Sugdens arrived. My grandma and granddad

Sugden and Uncle Dennis and his wife Marcia and their son Maurice all look the same, as if they went to funerals every day of their lives. I can hardly believe that my mother is related to them. The Sugdens refused a drink and had a cup of tea whilst my mother defrosted the turkey in the bath. I helped my father carry Queenie (fifteen stone) and Bert (fourteen stone) out of our car.

Queenie is one of those loud types of old ladies who dye their hair and try to look young. Bert is in love with her. He told me when I was helping him in the toilet.

Grandma Mole and Auntie Susan came at twelve-thirty and pretended to like the Sugdens. Auntie Susan told some amusing stories about life in prison but nobody but me and my father and Bert and Queenie laughed.

I went up to the bathroom and found my mother crying and running the turkey under the hot tap. She said, ‘The thing won’t thaw out, Adrian. What am I going to do?’ I said, ‘Just bung it in the oven.’ So she did.

We sat down to eat Christmas dinner four hours late. By then my father was too drunk to eat anything. The Sugdens enjoyed the Queen’s Speech but nothing else seemed to please them. Grandma Sugden gave me a book called

Bible Stories for Boys. I could hardly tell her that I had lost my faith, so I said thank-you and wore a false smile for so long that it hurt.

The Sugdens went to their camp beds at ten o’clock. Bert, Queenie and my mother and father played cards while I polished my bike. We all had a good time making jokes about the Sugdens. Then my father drove Bert and Queenie back to the home and I phoned Pandora up and told her that I love her more than life itself.

I am going round to her house tomorrow to give her the deodorant and escort her to the pantomime.

English

Grade 8

1.1 The word “bike” in line 1 is a contraction of the original word that became part of ordinary speech. What was the original word? (1)

1.2 Why, do you think, did Adrian’s father pay for the bike with his American Express card? (1)

1.3 Why did Adrian’s father write “Don’t leave it out in the rain again” on the card attached to the bike? (2)

1.4 In what way do Adrian’s parents show a different reaction to his Christmas’s gifts than to the previous year’s? What could the reason be for this change in reaction? (2)

1.5 Give three possible reasons for Adrian’s parents being upset when they heard about

Bert and Queenie coming over for the day. (3)

1.6 Adrian describes the Sugdens as looking as if they went to funerals every day of their lives.

What in their appearance could suggest this? (2)

1.7 Bert and Queenie’s respective weights are referred to in “stone”. One stone is equal to

14 lb (pounds) or 6.35 kg. Calculate either Bert or Queenie’s weight. (1)

English

Grade 8

1.8 Why did Adrian’s mother have to defrost the turkey in the bath? Give a possible reason for this happening. (2)

1.9 Provide another word for “bung” (line 29). (1)

1.10 “The Sugdens enjoyed the Queen’s Speech but nothing else seemed to please them.”

(lines 25-26)

1.9.1 What does this line tell us about the the Sugdens? (2)

1.9.2 Quote another line from the passage to support your answer. (1)

1.11 State whether the following are phrases or clauses. Give a reason for your answer.

1.10.1 “Just bung it in the oven.” (line 29) (2)

1.10.2 “So she did.” (line 29) (2)

1.12 Identify the parts of speech of the following words:

1.11.1 casually (line 9) (1)

1.11.2 stone (line 18) (1)

1.11.3 Christmas (line 31) (1)

TOTAL: 25 marks

English

Grade 8

Read the following extract from the South African novel

SPUD

written by John van de Ruit in 2005:

Wednesday 12th April

I decided to prepare myself for the limelight with twenty questions that the world will need to know about me.

Name:

John Howard Milton

Age:

13 (nearly 14)

Nickname:

Spud

Date of Birth:

20 April 1976

Star sign:

Aries (although some dodgy astrologers insist on calling me a Taurus)

Favourite food:

Cheddar cheese

Favourite drink:

Vanilla milkshake

Favourite film:

Pretty Woman

Favourite actress:

Julia Roberts

Favourite actor:

Myself (ha ha)

Favourite book:

The Lord of the Rings (I haven’t finished it yet but The Guv said it is the best book ever so I would rate it above Catch 22)

Worst book:

The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole (Any boy’s diary written by a woman called Sue

Townsend is not to be trusted.) Adrian Mole is a raving nerd who would never last one day in our dormitory. Even Gecko is less cowardly than this Lucozade-drinking pill popping, pimply pom! (I did think the book was hilarious though.)

Greatest Achievement:

Kissing the Mermaid – and I suppose winning a scholarship wasn’t too bad

Favourite sport:

Cricket

Most embarrassing moment:

Any public gathering with my parents

Funniest moment:

Any one of The Guv’s English lessons

Future plans:

To establish myself as a great actor, writer and scholar

Something your fans wouldn’t know about you:

I keep a diary

Who would you most like to be:

Julia Robert’s boyfriend

Who would you most like to meet:

Nelson Mandela

ADRIAN MOLE: EXTENSION EXERCISE

LEARNING OUTCOME 3 - ASSESSMENT STANDARD 8

You should be able to respond critically to texts:

• discuss the writer’s point of view;

• discuss implicit (or hidden) messages in the text, as well as bias or prejudice;

• discuss how context influences the message;

• identify what has been left out of the text and discusses why;

• question whether learner agrees with the messages in the text.

English

Grade 8

In a short paragraph, discuss your response to Spud’s opinion of Adrian Mole. Do you agree with his assessment of the book?

EXTENSION ASSESSMENT:

LEARNING OUTCOME 3 – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4

Shows understanding of information in texts:

• identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence;

• identifies and explains different points of view.

Read the song lyrics of “Profoundly in Love with Pandora” and answer the questions that follow.

English

Grade 8

My mother’s heart and soul

Have gone halfway up the pole

My father’s on the dole

This is taking its toll

My friend Bert is much too old 5

And his dog’s beyond control

Though it sometimes seems they’re droll

It’s a nuisance on the whole

I’m profoundly in love with Pandora

My poem has an intellectual theme 10

The tenderness with which I adore her

Goes all bouncy in my dreams

Yesterday my chin was clear

Now a new spot has appeared

Barry Kent had cost me dear 15

Till my Grandma interfered

The BBC know I’m sincere

In making writing my career

Wish my mum would come back here

Lots of ups and downs this year 20

I’m profoundly in love with Pandora

She’s got knee-socks and treacle-coloured hair

The tenderness with which I adore her

Is something fine and rare

But, my father’s in a mess 25

And there’s a great deal of stress

At our house

And my major concern

Is that things might return

To normal 30

So get rid of that creep

And come back to sleep

In our house

We both miss you mum

So hurry up and come 35

Back home

My mother’s heart and soul

Have gone halfway up the pole

Though it sometimes seems they’re droll

It’s a nuisance on the whole 40

Yesterday my chin was clear

Now a new spot has appeared

Profoundly in love with Pandora

Wish my mum would come back here

Lots of ups and downs this year 45

I’m profoundly in love with Pandora

Things aren’t always what they seem

The tenderness with which I adore her

Is indeed a love supreme

Profoundly in Love with Pandora

Ian Dury and the Blockheads

1. Which character narrates this song? (1)

2. All of the lines in the first verse rhyme. What sound do lines 1-8 have in common? (1)

3. Why has Adrian’s mother’s “heart and soul. . . gone halfway up the pole”? (1)

4.1 What is “taking its toll” on Adrian’s father? (1)

4.2 Besides the issue mentioned in 5.1, what is another example of “stress” (line 26) at the Mole house. (1)

English

Grade 8

5. Define “profoundly” using context clues. (1)

6. The artist purposefully uses “bouncy” in line 12 to remind the audience of what element of the novel? (1)

7. In the line “Barry Kent had cost me dear” (15), the word “cost” has two meanings.

Explain both meanings and relate them to the novel. (4)

8. “My major concern is that things might return to normal” (lines 28-30) shows which figure of speech? Explain. (2)

9. Who is “that creep” in line 31? (1)

Now listen to the song (the best place to find it is on the compilation

Reasons To Be

Cheerful :

The Best of Ian Dury and the Blockheads

, released by Demon Music Group in 2005).

LEARNING OUTCOME 1 – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 1

Listens to and appreciates challenging imaginative and informative oral texts (e.g. poems, praise poems, two- or three-episode stories and radio dramas, short talks, radio advertisements, debates).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

Listens actively and carefully for specific information and main ideas, and responds appropriately, for example:

• takes notes, summarises and draws conclusions;

• reflects on opinions, asks searching questions and challenges where necessary.

English

Grade 8

LEARNING OUTCOME 1 – ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5

Identifies the speaker’s reasons for choosing particular words, phrases and sentences to influence the listener and explains their impact (e.g. persuasive language, distinguishing between fact and opinion, identifying the speaker’s point of view, and recognising bias and prejudice).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 6

Recognises and accepts a wide range of different varieties of the language such as different

accents and dialects and discusses the language of different age groups (e.g. slang).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 7

Identifies the values and historical, social and cultural contexts of different texts.

10. How does the tone of the music give the listener clues to the meaning of the song? (2)

11.1. Who is the speaker (singer) meant to be? (1)

11.2. How would you describe the speaker’s (singer’s) accent? (1)

11.3. Give a word or phrase which helps you to identify this (remember that we are talking about the song, so you can comment on pronunciation here). (1)

11.4. Does this accent add to the meaning of the lyrics? Explain your opinion. (2)

11.5. Is this accent appropriate to the character in the story? (1)

12. How does hearing the words help the listener to identify with the character’s story? (2)

TOTAL: 25 marks

English

Grade 8

MODULE 3

LANGUAGE

In this section of the manual we will be concerned with

LEARNING OUTCOME 6:

LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AND USE.

In other words we are looking at how words are put together, what they are called, how they are used and how meaning can be made by using these words and concepts. For the most part we are simply revising and practising the basic skills you should have learnt in Primary School.

This is the studying section of English

– it is essential that you can

recognise, name and define

the different concepts we will be working with here, and then

use them correctly in the right context.

Most of the activities here are for revision and practise purposes.

Here are the skills, as listed in the Revised National Curriculum, that we need to demonstrate for this LO:

ASESSMENT STANDARD 1: Works with words:

• uses a range of different strategies to spell unfamiliar words;

• creates personal spelling list and dictionary of words across the curriculum and discusses which words give problems;

• uses the dictionary and thesaurus competently for vocabulary and spelling research;

• uses common abbreviations and acronyms appropriately;

• uses word families and words of the same field to develop vocabulary in context;

• uses prefixes and suffixes to work out meaning;

• explains how languages borrow words from one another, and how new words are coined.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2: Works with sentences:

• identifies and uses nouns, verbs, modals, adjectives, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and articles;

• identifies and uses a variety of subordinate clauses correctly and appropriately (e.g. ‘As it was late, she went straight home.’);

• identifies and uses relative clauses and relative pronouns (e.g. ‘I know the person who did it.’);

• analyses the grammatical differences between statements, questions, commands, instructions and exclamations;

• identifies and uses the components of a sentence such as subject, verb, direct and indirect object, main and subordinate clauses;

• uses a range of punctuation appropriately (e.g. comma to separate an introductory phrase or clause from the main part of a sentence, and to separate phrases and clauses in a series).

English

Grade 8

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4: Develops awareness and use of style:

• uses a variety of sentence lengths and analyses sentence types;

• distinguishes between formal and informal language and uses an appropriate style in writing and speaking;

• uses idioms and idiomatic expressions appropriately and creatively.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5: Develops critical language awareness, for example:

• identifies implied meanings and multiple meanings;

• identifies manipulative language and rewrites this without the emotional undertones;

• examines how language is used to construct gender, race, the environment, health, etc., and how the reader is positioned.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 6: Uses meta-language (terms such as thesaurus, acronym, modal, article, relative clause).

ALL RIGHT – Enough Theory! As they say in the movies:

“Let’s go to work!”

ACTIVITY 1: Learning THE DOLCH 220 BASIC SIGHT VOCABULARY

These words were compiled by E W Dolch, PhD. Since these 220 words make up 20% to

75% of all ordinary reading matter, they should be recognised on sight by all school children.

These words are usually taught to all learners at Grade 3 level and by Grade 8 you should recognise, understand and be able to use them correctly in all your writing. Therefore, you need to study and memorise them!

a all and as

carry could

English

Grade 8 cut done drink fall first found funny go got has her came cold after am are at because better both buy can come again an around ate been big bring by away before black brown call clean about always any ask be best blue but

if it keep let live make much never now on eat far five four gave goes green have here hot hold

I is just laugh little made me myself not old only did don’t grow he him how in its kind light open do down eight fast fly from get going

English

Grade 8 out play put ride said seven sing small start ten their them they three too up very good had help his hurt into jump know like look may my no off one our long many must new of once or does draw every find for full give

will would you own pretty read round say she six thank then think to try upon walk wash were which was what where why work over please ran right saw shall sit so stop some take that there this today two us want we went white wish write your pick pull

red run see show sleep soon tell the these those together under use warm does any many love laugh have again against buy done tongue answer woman women their cough pretty been move brought build through talk well when who with yellow yes

English

Grade 8 where there were own

walk chalk wear said busy business heart eight earth child thought wild one once would should could weight height friend great enough come colour through

TRICK WORDS

Study these words until you know them for life.

ACTIVTY 2: Back to Basics!

In the following series of exercises you will need to define and then apply the rules related to different basic Language concepts. You may use a dictionary or The English Handbook and

Study

Guide by Beryl Lutrin to assist you with the definitions.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2: Works with sentences:

identifies and uses nouns, verbs, modals, adjectives, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and articles

1. PARTS OF SPEECH

To be able to talk about different words we need to use the

correct terminology

and call them by their official names. We also need to understand their

functions

in sentences to be able to use them correctly.

NOUNS

The largest group of words in any language are

Nouns

.

NOUNS

are

_____________________________________________________________________

And can divided into different categories:

English

Grade 8

COMMON NOUNS

are

____________________________________________________________

_ For example:

____________________________________________________________________

PROPER NOUNS

are

_____________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

ABSTRACT NOUNS

are

___________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

PRONOUNS

are

_________________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

are

_________________________________________________________

For example

_____________________________________________________________________

VERBS

The most important words for building sentences are

Verbs

VERBS

are

______________________________________________________________________

For example:__________________________________________________________________

___

To test whether a word is a verb we can place

to

in front of it to create the

INFINTIVE

FORM

of the verb. This describes an action that can occur at any time.

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

Verbs can have complete

TENSES

. This means__________________________________________

The three tenses are

• ________________________ tense

These words mostly end with –

ed

and are called the

PAST PARTICIPLES.

• ________________________ tense

These words mostly end with –

ing

and are called

PRESENT PARTICIPLES

.

• ________________________ tense

This tense is created by the use of

AUXILLARY

(or extra)

VERBS

. Auxlllary verbs are

modals

– they help us say what might or could or should happen.

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

If a verb has a clear tense it is said to be a

FINITE VERB

. If the verb has no clear tense it is said to be

INFINITE

or continuous.

English

Grade 8

ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVES

are

________________________________________________________________

__ and therefore they make our language more accurate and interesting.

To remember their function, always think of

adding

to what we already have.

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

ADVERBS

ADVERBS

are

___________________________________________________________________ and usually end with –

ly

. They help to make the language accurate and interesting.

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITIONS

are

_____________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

CONJUNCTIONS

CONJUNCTIONS

are

_____________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

ARTICLES

ARTICLES

are

___________________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

“The”, “a”, and “an” are articles. Articles are always adjectives. They modify nouns and pronouns.

Example:

The two dark cats were walking on the fence.

The

- adjective because it modifies the noun cats and is an article.

Two

- adjective because it modifies the noun cats & answers the question HOW MANY?

Dark

- adjective because it modifies the noun cats & answers the question WHAT KIND?

The

- adjective because it modifies fence & is an article.

English

Grade 8

2. SENTENCES and RULES OF SYNTAX

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2: Works with sentences:

• identifies and uses nouns, verbs, modals, adjectives, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions,

and articles;

• identifies and uses a variety of subordinate clauses correctly and appropriately (e.g. ‘As it was late, she went straight home.’);

• identifies and uses relative clauses and relative pronouns (e.g. ‘I know the person who did it.’);

• analyses the grammatical differences between statements, questions, commands, instructions and exclamations;

• identifies and uses the components of a sentence such as subject, verb, direct and indirect object, main and subordinate clauses;

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4: Develops awareness and use of style:

uses a variety of sentence lengths and analyses sentence types;

Basic English sentence construction (or syntax) follows a set pattern:

SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT / ADJECTIVAL / ADVERBIAL PHRASE

Provide an example of a simple sentence:

_________________________________________________________________________

______

THE SUBJECT

__________________________________________________________________

In my example this was

___________________________________________________________

THE OBJECT

___________________________________________________________________

In my example this was

___________________________________________________________

THE VERB + OBJECT

(or other parts of the sentence)

are called

________________________

In my example this was

___________________________________________________________

The basic sentences types are:

STATEMENTS:

__________________________________________________________________

QUESTIONS:

___________________________________________________________________

INSTRUCTIONS / COMMANDS:

__________________________________________________

EXCLAMATIONS

:

_______________________________________________________________

GREETINGS / SALUTATIONS :

___________________________________________________

SENTENCES

can be divided into two component parts :

PHRASES

which

_________________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

And

CLAUSES

which

______________________________________________________________

For example:

English

Grade 8

3. PUNCTUATION

LEARNING OUTCOME 6: ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

uses a range of punctuation appropriately (e.g. comma to separate an introductory phrase or clause from the main part of a sentence, and to separate phrases and clauses in a series).

To make our intentions clear when we write we need to use PUNCTUATION marks which show the tone and attitude with which sentences would be spoken, so that the reader clearly understands our meaning. Incorrect punctuation can change meaning and cause enormous confusion!

For each of the following Punctuation Marks first provide the rule that governs it and then a relevant example of how it is used.

CAPITAL LETTERS: _____________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

FULL STOPS (.):

__________________________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

COMMAS (,): _________________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

SEMI-COLONS (;): _____________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

COLONS (:): __________________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

QUESTION MARKS (?): _________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

EXCLAMATION MARKS (!): _______________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

QUOTATION MARKS / INVERTED COMMAS (“ ” ; ‘ ’): ___________________________

____________________________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

Remember that all other punctuation marks must be inside the inverted commas.

English

Grade 8

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

BULLETS (*): _________________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

ELLIPSIS (...): ________________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

Remember:

whenever you write the title of a novel, film or other work of art, it must be

underlined

or in

“inverted commas”.

When you are typing it can be

italicised

or in

bold.

THE APOSTROPHE (’): __________________________________________________

This is by far the incorrectly used punctuation mark!

Examples:

______________________________________________________________________

Remember: The apostrophe is not used to show plural in English as it is in Afrikaans.

PARENTHESIS / BRACKETS ( ): ___________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

THE HYPHEN (-): ______________________________________________________

Examples:

____________________________________________________________

THE DASH (-): ________________________________________________________

LANGUAGE EXERCISE 1:

Follow the instructions for these parts of speech.

List the nouns in the following sentences. Mark C for common and P for proper.

1. The mayor suggested that the boy clean up Wilmington Statue for his community service project.

__________ __

________ _______________ ___________

2. Two friends water-skied on Lake Erie.

__________ ______________

3. The twins, who are from the large city of Houston, are vacationing in Canada all next month.

_________ _________ _________ _________ __________

4. The teacher asked the student to report on the country of France.

__________ __________ __________ __________

English

Grade 8

5. The address on the envelope clearly read Mexico.

__________ __________ __________

6. The witness’s story was about a man fleeing from a building.

__________ __________ __________

7. The factory blew into a thousand pieces.

__________ __________

8. Mary was so excited that she ran all the way home.

__________ __________

9. The journal by Hemingway was found after his death.

__________ __________ __________

10. Tractors are good for farming and also for young boys and girls who want to practice their driving skills.

__________ __________ _________ __________ __________

Parts of Speech Worksheet

Adjectives

answer these questions about the noun:

WHAT KIND

of noun is it?

WHICH

noun is it?

HOW MANY

of that noun are there?

Find the adjectives in the following sentences.

1. He suggested they clean the statue for their community service project.

__________ __________ _______________ _______________

2. The bank book was on the kitchen table.

__________ ____________ ________ ________________

3. Five dollars was required of each student.

__________ __________

4. The teacher asked the shy boy to give an oral report.

__________ __________ _________ ___________ ______________

5. I visited the family for several days.

__________ _______________

6. Do you have a special someone in your life?

_____________ ___________ __________

7. Her story was printed in the town paper.

__________ __________ ___________

English

Grade 8

Adverbs modify verbs. An adverb can also modify adjectives and other adverbs.

Adverbs answer these questions:

• WHERE?

• WHEN?

• HOW?

• HOW OFTEN?

• TO WHAT EXTENT?

Commonly used Adverbs:

Here, there, away, up -- tell

WHERE

Now, then, later, soon, yesterday -- tell

WHEN

Easily, quietly, slowly, quickly -- tell

HOW

Never, always, often, seldom -- tell

HOW OFTEN

Very, almost, too, so, really -- tell

TO WHAT EXTENT

Find the adverbs in the following sentences.

1. Today, Sam suggested that we carefully clean the statue for the class service project.

__________ __________

2. The bank book is often there on the desk.

__________ ____________

3. Jeanne could always clearly see the mountain through the binoculars Dan gave her.

__________ __________

4. The teacher never asked the shy boy to give an oral report.

__________

5. He was too scared to consider a lengthy conversation with the extremely beautiful girl.

__________ _______________

6. Do you have a special someone in your life now?

_____________

7. Her story was printed in the town paper much later.

__________ __________

English

Grade 8

4. FIGURES OF SPEECH

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4: Develops awareness and use of style:

• distinguishes between formal and informal language and uses an appropriate style in writing and speaking;

• uses idioms and idiomatic expressions appropriately and creatively.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5: Develops critical language awareness, for example:

• identifies implied meanings and multiple meanings;

• identifies manipulative language and rewrites this without the emotional undertones;

• examines how language is used to construct gender, race, the environment, health, etc.,

and how the reader is positioned.

Our language would be very dull and ordinary without the use of Figures of Speech – they are there for decoration and colour, to make it easier for us to express our emotions in words.

By understanding how these Figures of Speech are used we can be more aware of how writers are attempting to influence our responses.

The first Figures of Speech we will consider are

Comparisons:

SIMILES

are

____________________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______

METAPHORS:

___________________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______

A specific kind of metaphor is

PERSONIFICATION

, which is different to other Metaphors because

________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______

Comparisons often occur in

IDIOMS

and

PROVERBS

. These are commonly used expressions that contain certain beliefs or truths.

Many Figures of Speech are fun because they use the sounds and inconsistencies of language to achieve their aims

English

Grade 8

PUNS

are

_______________________________________________________________________ they rely on ambiguity ( which means ________________________________) for their effect.

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

ONOMATOPOEIA

is

______________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

ALLITERATION

is

_______________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

ASSONANCE

is

__________________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

And ... some of the fun ones ...

PALINDROMES

are

______________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

ANAGRAMS

are

_________________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

MALAPROPRISMS

are

___________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

SPOONERISMS

are

______________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

OXYMORONS

are

_______________________________________________________________

For example:

____________________________________________________________________

ATTENTION !

Angry armed Aardvarks are awaiting any attack and always act aggressively

English

Grade 8

IDIOMS EXERCISE:

Explain what each of these idioms means.

1. Every cloud has a silver lining.

2. You can lead a horse to water but you cannot make him drink.

3. Birds of a feather flock together.

4. The grass is greener on the other side.

5. We have to bring home the bacon.

6. Quiet waters run deep.

7. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

8. The pen is mightier than the sword.

9. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

10. Don’t count your chickens before they hatch.

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Grade 8

Try to think of other idioms that are commonly used and write them down here:

English

Grade 8

5. DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECH

DIRECT SPEECH

is when we write down

exactly

what the person said. We use quotation marks to show that we are quoting the person’s

exact words.

For example:

“How is your mother?” John asked.

REPORTED (INDIRECT) SPEECH

is when report what someone else said.

For example:

John asked how your mother was.

Notice how the

tense has changed

. We also add

reporting verbs

such as ‘say’; ‘tell’ and

‘ask’.

We may also use the word ‘that’ to introduce the reported speech.

For example: Sally said: “Stop shouting William!”

Becomes: Sally

told

William

that

he must stop shouting.

Rewrite the following dialogues in indirect speech:

1. Patient: “Doctor, I feel like a pack of cards.”

Doctor: “Please wait, I’ll deal with you later.”

2. Sailor: “It was terrible. We were shipwrecked and had to live on a can of tuna for two weeks.”

Captain: “Weren’t you afraid you would fall off?”

3. Learner: “Ma’am, can I get into trouble for something I haven’t done?”

Teacher: “Of course not! Don’t be ridiculous.”

Learner: “Good, because I haven’t done my homework!”

English

Grade 8

4. Patient: “Doctor, I swallowed a five rand coin!”

Doctor: “Sit there and tell me if there is any change.”

5. Customer: “Waiter, do you have frogs legs?”

Waiter: “No sir, I always walk this way.”

6. Postman 1: “A dog bit my leg this morning.”

Postman 2: “Did you put anything on it?”

Postman 1: “No, he preferred it plain.”

7. Paddy: “Murphy, what’s in that bag?”

Murphy: “Chickens.”

Paddy: “If I guess how many there are, can I have one?”

Murphy: “If you guess correctly, you can have both.”

8. Patient: “Doctor, I feel like a teaspoon.”

Doctor: “Sit there and don’t stir.”

English

Grade 8

9. Teacher: “Charles, do you know what detail is?”

Charles: “I do. It’s de ting dat wags de dog.”

10. Teacher: “Julie, use the word ‘discount’ in a sentence.”

Julie: Yes, ma’am. Does discount as a sentence?”

6. DICTIONARY WORK:

LEARNING OUTCOME 6: LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AND USE

Works with words:

• uses a range of different strategies to spell unfamiliar words;

• creates personal spelling list and dictionary of words across the curriculum and discusses which words give problems;

• uses the dictionary and thesaurus competently for vocabulary and spelling research

• uses common abbreviations and acronyms appropriately;

• uses word families and words of the same field to develop vocabulary in context;

• uses prefixes and suffixes to work out meaning;

• explains how languages borrow words from one another, and how new words are coined.

The word

dictionary

comes from the Latin dicere / dictus which means “to say or tell.” So, a dictionary is a book which tells us words that are commonly used in a language. Each word is listed alphabetically, with its meaning and other information.

Consider the following extract from the

Collins Concise Dictionary

– 21st Century Edition

(published in 2001).

English

Grade 8

Use the dictionary extract to answer these questions.

1. Why is the word

lexeme

written in bold at the top of the page?

2. What is a

lexicon

?

3. From what language does the word lexicon come?

4. Name a town that lies northwest of Boston.

5. What do we call a system of writing that uses signs to represent words?

6. What kind of tree was named after C.J. Leyland?

7. Give a word which refers to communicating groups.

8. Why is the word

liaise

followed by the brackets containing

(li’eḬ z)

?

9. Explain the function of a

Thesaurus

. How does it differ from an ordinary dictionary?

10. Write your own dictionary entries for the following South African words. Try to give all the information you can find, including the

origins

(

etymology

) of the word, its

pronunciation

and

meaning

.

English

Grade 8

10.1. Ubuntu

10.2. Ayoba 10.3. Aish / eish

10.4. Babbalas

10.5. Dof

10.6. Mampara

10.7. Bakkie

10.8. Robot

English

Grade 8

MODULE 4

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE’S

A MIDSUMMER NIGHT’S DREAM

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4

Shows understanding of information in texts:

• identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence;

• identifies and explains different points of view.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5

Explains how key features and the organisation of different types of texts contribute to how the text functions (e.g. poems, short novels, newspaper articles, letters, ballads, book reviews).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 6

Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life by discussing the plot, themes, values, characters and setting.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 7

Analyses techniques used to create particular effects in visual, written and multimedia texts such as:

• the effectiveness of literary devices, and language used;

• the impact of design elements (e.g. type and

• position of artwork, use of colour);

• the impact of camera and film techniques (e.g. close-ups, zoom shots, camera angles, flashbacks).

English

Grade 8

Research the meaning of the term blank verse:

Also investigate Iambic Pentameter – the rhyming and rhythmic pattern in Shakespeare’s writing:

William Shakespeare is without question the most famous writer in English, some would even say in any language. Although he died in 1616 (nearly 400 years ago!) his plays are still regularly performed, adapted into films and studied across the world. He is admired not only for his stories, but also for his language and his ability to accurately portray human behaviour.

Studying and understanding Shakespeare is seen as the highest form of literature study in English, but his use of language is just as important. Shakespeare was a poet who wrote much of the dialogue in his plays in a specific form of poetry called

blank verse.

We are going to study one of Shakespeare’s most popular plays,

A Midsummer Night’s

Dream

– an amusing fantasy / love story.

But before we read the play, let’s get to know the author:

Interesting Facts about Shakespeare

• Born: April 23, 1564

• Died: April 23, 1616; 52 years old; buried in the Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-Upon-

Avon.

The inscription on his tombstone reads:

“Blest be the man that spares these stones/ And curst be he that moves my bones”

His bones are still buried there today!

• He wrote 37 plays and 154 sonnets (that’s approximately 1.5 plays per year).

• He was a playwright, actor, poet and theatre manager/shareholder.

• On Google Search there are 15 million pages on W.S. (only second to “God” who has

150 million pages!)

• He performed for Queen Elizabeth I (the Virgin Queen) and James I (who eventually named his theatre troupe “The King’s Men”).

• Suicide occurs 13 times in his plays.

• He is believed to have invented over 3000 words/phrases including “watchdog”,

“barefaced”, “break the ice”, “fair play”, “heartsick”, “heart of gold”, “long haired”, “one fell swoop”…

• Macbeth is performed somewhere in the world every four hours.

• He wrote his first known play at 25.

English

Grade 8

A Timeline of William Shakespeare’s Life

1564:

He is born to glove maker, John and wife, Mary.

1582:

He married Anne Hathaway.

1583-1585:

He has three children: 2 daughters and a son.

By

1592

William Shakespeare had made a name for himself in London’s theatre; within the year he begins writing The Sonnets (which are only published 17 years later.)

1594:

He established “The Lord Chamberlain’s Men”, an acting company.

1597:

His son, Hamnet, dies; he writes A Midsummer Night’s Dream and Romeo and

Juliet, probably his most popular and famous play.

1599:

The Globe theatre is built on the Thames River Bankside; he writes Julius Caesar and Much Ado About Nothing.

1603:

“The Lord Chamberlain’s Men” becomes “The King’s Men” at the request of James

I.

1608:

He writes some of his greatest plays - Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, Twelfth Night

(amongst others).

1612:

He retires from the theatre but continues writing.

1616:

Shakespeare dies having returned to his home in Stratford-Upon-Avon from

London.

Before we read the text of the play we need to be familiar with a few Dramatic Terms and concepts that are common in Shakespeare’s work.

Dramatic Terms:

Soliloquy:

a speech in which the character appears to be talking to himself to enable the audience to hear his thoughts or plans.

Aside:

a side comment made by a character to the audience that the other characters cannot hear.

Dramatic irony:

the audience knows the hidden aspects of the plot though the characters continue to be unaware of their fate/outcome.

Remember: Soliloquies and asides contribute to dramatic irony!

English

Grade 8

The Structure of Shakespeare’s Plays:

Shakespeare wrote

histories, comedies and tragedies.

In his times, from studying Ancient

Greek theatre techniques,

Comedy

meant any story that had a “happy ending” in which characters survived and succeeded. In contrast, a

Tragedy

was any play in which the characters suffered or were punished for their behaviour.

Conventionally, most of the main characters in a Shakespearian Tragedy die because of one or more character’s evil intentions. The Comedies often revolve around a character (or characters) with mistaken or hidden identities. The plot often deals with having to resolve a misunderstanding.

All three play types have:

1: An Introduction:

In which setting develops, characters are introduced.

2: A Climax:

the dramatic high point with conflict being created.

3: The Denouement:

The final outcome, where secrets are revealed and all issues are resolved.

The conventional structure of a Shakespearian play is

Five Acts

divided into

Scenes

.

Let’s consider

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

as an example of a typical Comedy. To help you, and because Shakespeare wrote to be spoken and heard, your teacher will read the play aloud with you in class.



A Midsummer Night’s Dream



A Midsummer Night’s Dream

is one of William Shakespeare’s most popular plays.

Unlike other favourites

Hamlet and

Romeo and Juliet

,

A midsummer Night’s Dream

is a Comedy. This means that the story is a romance that has a “Happy Ending” and not that there are jokes all the way through.

Shakespeare wrote his plays for performance, not to be studied from the page, so we are also going to study the film adaptation made by Michael Hoffman in 1998, after reading the text..

It is believed that this play was written around 1595, at a time when England was starting to become a powerful trading nation because of her strong navy.

Although the society was advanced in terms of technology, the ordinary people were mostly uneducated and very superstitious.

These people still believed in Magic and Ghosts and Fairies that lived in the forests.

Now, as for the story:

English

Grade 8

Shakespeare understood the dramatic possibilities of magical settings and characters. He knew that the audience would respond to the idea of mischievous fairies and confusion caused by magic potions. This is why he uses Puck, the naughty fairy, as the narrator of the story.

Characters:

The main characters in this film are -

Puck

, also known as Robin Goodfellow, a mischievous woodland imp who enjoys playing pranks on Humans. He is a messenger for

Oberon

,

King of the Otherworld

, who is jealous of his wife,

Titania’s

new servant - a human child who is abducted by the Fairies, referred to as a

“changeling”.

The

Duke

of the city of Athens is about to be married.

Hermia

, who has been promised to another man, is planning to elope with her boyfriend

Lysander

. When they arrive in the woods, Hermia’s friend,

Helena

, has joined them. She is desperately in love with

Demetrius

, who doesn’t seem to be interested.

Also in the woods is a group of amateur actors, led by

Bottom the Weaver

, rehearsing a play for the Duke’s wedding celebrations.

(Illustration from TOP TEN SHAKESPEARE STORIES by Terry Deary, Hippo Books, 1998)

Narrative (Story):

As with many of Shakespeare’s Comedies,

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

revolves around misunderstandings and people being confused with each other.

In this story the confusion begins when Oberon instructs Puck to place a magic potion on

Titania’s eyelids while she is sleeping.

English

Grade 8

This potion will make her fall in love with the first person she sees after waking.

Puck goes one better, though, and puts potion on all the humans’ eyelids so that they fall in love with the wrong partners.

To add to this confusion, Puck also plays a prank on

Bottom by giving him a donkey (ass’s) head!

Of course, Queen Titania sees Bottom when she wakes and falls hopelessly in love with him ...

Eventually though, with a little help from Oberon, all the confusion is settled and the lovers return to Athens to be married.

Bottom is returned to his natural state and joins his company of actors in their hilariously amateur version of

Pyramus and Thisby

.

Answer the following questions as you read through the play to create a summary of the story, characters and events.

ACT I, SCENE I

1. How is Hippolyta’s reasoning, concerning the passing of the next four days, different from that of Theseus?

2. What was the proper role for women/daughters in Athenian society, according to Egeus and

Theseus?

3. What is Theseus’s ruling concerning Hermia?

English

Grade 8

4. How does Lysander’s comment about Demetrius’s previous love affair with Helena complicate things?

5. What do Lysander and Hermia plan to do about this seemingly impossible situation?

6. Even though Helena loves Demetrius, and is Hermia’s best friend, why does she decide to tell Demetrius of Hermia and Lysander’s plans?

ACT I, SCENE II

1. Why does Nick Bottom want to play all the parts?

2. In what way is this scene funny? Why do you suppose Shakespeare included this scene?

English

Grade 8

2. Why won’t Titania give up the changeling to Oberon?

3. What does Oberon send Puck to find?

4. What are Oberon’s plans for Titania?

ACT II, SCENE I

1. What does the reader find out about the current relationship between Oberon, King of the

Fairies, and Titania, Queen of the Fairies, from Puck and the first fairy?

3. Where are the actors to meet the following night? Who else is meeting in these same woods at the same time?

English

Grade 8

5. In what way is Helena’s behavior inappropriate for Athenian women?

6. What does Oberon tell Puck to do about Demetrius and Helena?

ACT II, SCENE II

1. Why does Oberon want Titania to wake and fall in love with some vile thing?

2. Why does Hermia insist Lysander sleep a little ways from her?

3. Why does Puck anoint Lysander’s eyes?

English

Grade 8

2. How are the actors going to manage the setting/scenery such as the moonlight and the wall?

3. Why do the rest of the actors run off when Bottom reappears?

ACT III, SCENE I

1. How are the actors going to keep from scaring the ladies when Pyramus kills himself or when the lion roars?

4. How does Helena react to Lysander’s sudden love for her when he awakens?

5. How is Hermia’s dream a reflection of reality?

English

Grade 8

4. Bottom says, “…reason and love keep little company together nowadays.” Why is this such an apt statement at this point in the play?

ACT III, SCENE II

1. What does Hermia accuse Demetrius of doing?

2. How are Puck and Oberon going to correct Puck’s earlier mistake?

3. Why is Helena upset when Demetrius says he loves her? Isn’t this what she had wanted all along?

4. Of what does Helena accuse Hermia?

English

Grade 8

9. Why doesn’t Oberon fear the coming of day?

6. Of what does Hermia accuse Helena?

7. Why is Helena afraid of Hermia?

8. What are Lysander and Demetrius going off to do?

5. How does Lysander treat Hermia? Why can’t she believe what he says?

English

Grade 8

4. What explanation does Demetrius make? Why does he compare his love for Hermia to an

illness?

ACT IV, SCENE I

1. What is Oberon’s reaction to Titania’s infatuation with Bottom?

2. What sort of explanation will Oberon make to Titania’s question about what happened to her? Do you think he will tell her the truth?

3. Why are Theseus, Hippolyta, Egeus, and the others out in the woods so early in the morning?

5. What is Theseus’s decision concerning the four young people?

English

Grade 8

ACT V

1. Why does Theseus dismiss the stories of the four young people?

2. Why does Theseus choose to see the play about Pyramus and Thisbe rather than the other entertainments?

3. What is accomplished by having the Prologue tell the whole story that the actors are then going to enact?

6. Why can’t the young people be sure whether they are awake or dreaming?

7. Bottom believes he too has had a dream. How is he going to use that dream to entertain the Duke?

English

Grade 8

FILM STUDY: A MIDSUMMER NIGHT’S DREAM

(Directed by Michael Hoffman, released in 1998 by 20th Century Fox.)

LEARNING OUTCOME 2: ASSESSMENT STANDARD 7

Analyses techniques used to create particular effects in visual, written and multimedia texts such as:

• the effectiveness of literary devices, and language used;

• the impact of design elements (e.g. type and

• position of artwork, use of colour);

• the impact of camera and film techniques (e.g. close-ups, zoom shots, camera angles, flashbacks).

4. How does Shakespeare use the comments from the audience to enhance the humor of the play that they are watching?

5. What is Hippolyta’s reaction to the play?

6. In what way is Thisbe’s final speech humorous?

7. What is the purpose of Puck’s final speech?

English

Grade 8

NOW that we are familiar with the story and characters, let’s take a look at how Michael

Hoffman and his cast adapted the play into a film.

Because we are dealing with two different media here – one is a written text whereas the other is visual, we need to consider the film in different terms

The Setting and Design:

In any storytelling the setting is a crucial element of the process. The

production design

(costumes, make-up and sets) in a film help to create an atmosphere for the story. On stage these elements also play a part, but a film is able to take us to the actual locations. On the page it’s up to the author’s words to create pictures in the reader’s imagination.

Shakespeare’s play was set in ancient Greece, but this film adaptation is set in 19th

Century Italy.

Why do you think these changes were made?

Comment on the costumes and design of this film by answering these questions:

What tone or mood do the light effects and colouring create in the film?

Would you say that the design is appropriate to the story being told?

What differences can you find between the lighting and set designs for the human city of

Athens and the Fairy World?

Athens Fairy World

English

Grade 8

The filmmakers were very clearly influenced by the illustrations used in Victorian (1840 to 1900) period children’s books.

What elements of a traditional Fairy Tale does the film have?

Consider the music used in the film: It is mostly 19th Century classical music from well known and loved Italian opera.

Listen to some of the music - try to find the Intermezzo from Cavalleria Rusticana by Mascagni which is used throughout the film, especially in the fairy world. Also listen for Mendelssohn’s famous Wedding March which was specifically written for a ballet version of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. A very famous Verdi aria (from La

Traviata) is also used.

What do you think the filmmakers’ reasons were for using this music?

Is it appropriate to the film?

English

Grade 8

Is it appropriate to the play?

In order to be able to discuss the film academically, we need to use the correct language.

Film Terminology:

Provide the appropriate terms for each of these definitions -

1. ______________________ The individual pictures which are used to make the film.

2. ______________________ The process of connecting pictures and frames in order to make sense of the story.

3. ______________________ The different positioning of the camera.

4. Sideways movement of the camera is known as ______________________ .

5. A ______________ is when the camera moves up or down on the subject it is filming.

6. When the camera moves with the subject this called ____________________ . The camera moves on a platform known as a _________________.

7. The person who helps to find finance for a film is called the _________________. He chooses a ____________________ who will be the person to make the creative decisions and put the film together.

8. The camera operator is also known as the _____________________________ .

9. The actors in a film are usually referred to as the ___________ .

Camera shots and angles

The positioning of the camera provides information to the viewer. The closer the camera is to characters, the easier it is to read their emotions. The further away the camera is, the more we see of the background context of the action. When we see the scene from the character’s perspective this called a

point-of-view

angle. For these angles the filmmakers will often use

handheld

cameras so that the audiences feels as if they are discovering the scene with the characters. Cameras can also be positioned on a crane in order to move closer or further away from the

subject

in single shots. The lense of the camera can also change focus and make us notice certain information.

This is called

zooming.

English

Grade 8

Comment on the information visible in each of these stills from The Matrix (1999).

1: An extreme Long Shot (wide angle)

2: Long Shot

3:Medium Long Shot

4: Medium Shot

5: Medium Close Up

6: Close Up

7: Extreme Close Up

English

Grade 8

Analysing images:

When we analyse an image we need to look at the following features -

1. The composition

This refers to the way that the picture has been planned, so that the viewer’s eye is attracted to certain information. For this reason the photographer chooses to

foreground

some elements and

background

others.

Explain what these terms mean.

Foreground

Background

The photographer also has a

focal point

which is usually the central image in the picture.

The human eye is naturally attracted to light, so brighter colours will seem closer than darker ones.

Certain images are

composites:

made up of other pictures.

Discuss this composite image used to advertise

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

– what information is emphasised? How is this done? Why?

English

Grade 8

We also need to be aware of the positioning and angle of the camera when the picture was taken - this is referred to as the

shot

.

From what angle was this image taken?

What kind of shot is this?

What information was the photographer trying to give the viewer?

Analyse the still above - talk about the composition, foregrounding, backgrounding and what kind of shot it is.

English

Grade 8

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES:

ASSESSMENT 1: Act I Quiz

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 6

Demonstrates understanding of the text

1.1. Who does Egeus want Hermia to marry? (1)

English

Grade 8

1.2. Who does Hermia really love? (1)

2. What is the main point of Lysander’s speech in lines 99-110? (1)

3. Give three reasons for “true love never run[ning] smooth”. ( lines 134-142) (3)

4. Explain Lysander’s secret plan. (2)

5. In her soliloquy, Helena lets the audience know what she is going to do in response to

Lysander’s secret plan. Explain her reasoning. (2)

[10 marks]

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES:

ASSESSMENT 2: Group Work Suggested Duration: One hour

LEARNING OUTCOME 2: SPEAKING

Communicates ideas and feelings creatively and expressively with a great degree of confidence and with limited assistance, using a range of selected oral text types (e.g. dramas, roleplays, songs).

Instructions

Choose a scene from “Midsummernight’s Dream” and prepare a short skit on it.

Do the following:

English

Grade 8

• Make sure that your whole group is involved

• Make sure it is a clearly identifiable scene

• Make sure that it is true to the text

• Make use of interesting and original language, but make sure it is your own

• Make sure that your skit is structurally correct (it has an introduction, body and conclusion)

Remember: you will not have a lengthy preparation time, so make sure that you use your time constructively.

Also, this is not a play: it is a lengthened improvisation, so do not spend too much time on props and other items.

CRITERIA 7

Outstanding

6

Meritorious

5

Substantial

4

Adequate

3

Moderate

2

Elementary

1

Not achieved

1

Was the whole group involved?

Excellent involvement by all

High level of involvement throughout

All involved. FAll involved, but there were moments showing a lack of focus

Uneven involvement

Some group members were onlookers rather than participants.

Very few of group actually involved

2

Was it clearly identifiable scene?

Lovely version, immediately recognized by all.

Clearly identifiable scene

Clearly identifiable scene.

Fairly identifiable

Had to think to place scene.

Very vague Scene not identifiable at all

3

Was your skit true to the text?

Logically sequenced and absolutely accurate

Better than the film

Skit true to the text.

Skit fairly true to text

Half true, half fabricated

Very little bearing on text

Skit has no bearing on text.

4

Did you make use of original language

Own, original language with interesting

Own, original language

Made use of own, original

Tried to use original

Tried to use original

Bad version of original

All from

One of structural elements

Two of structural elements

Structure not clear

Lack of structure had a negative impact on the original text

5

Was your skit structurally correct

Excellent flow of all three stages

Writing carefully and logicallyl

Good use of structural elements

meaning.

LEARNERS’ NAMES: TOTAL: _________ / 35

RUBRIC for Assignment A Midsummer Night’s Dream Group Work

Date assignment was issued: _________________

Due date for assignment: _________________

English

Grade 8

ASSESSMENT 3: Writing a Tabloid Article

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

Produces a range of factual written and multimodal texts (texts using print and images) for various purposes, using a range of visual, and design elements where appropriate by means of recounts of events, research project reports, pamphlets, posters, and book reviews.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 3

Demonstrates basic skills in a range of features of writing appropriate to the text type

(e.g. reveals character, establishes the setting and develops the plot in narrative and descriptive writing, and uses simple imagery in poetry).

Before writing this article, research

tabloid writing

by reading

Heat

or

People

magazine for examples of

sensationalist writing

. Be sure you understand what these terms mean.

Write a tabloid article detailing the experience of one of the characters in the play. You may also consider writing about one of the love triangles. Make sure to include:

-

background

on the character,

-

sensationalism

, or purposely exaggerating the truth,

-a creative

title

,

-your name as the

author

,

-at least one

figure of speech

, and

- a photograph of the character (not an internet cut-out from the movie!).

Be sure to include the attached rubrics, both peer and self assessments.

DO NOT FILL OUT THE SELF-ASSESSMENT UNTIL INSTRUCTED TO DO SO.

[20 marks]

ASSESSMENT 4: READING COMPREHENSION:

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4

Shows understanding of information in texts:

• identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence;

• identifies and explains different points of view.

English

Grade 8

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5

Explains how key features and the organisation of different types of texts contribute to how

the text functions.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 6

Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life.

Read the following article and answer the questions that follow. Write in complete sentences when appropriate.

Did Shakespeare really write his own plays?

A computational fingerprint that uniquely characterizes William Shakespeare’s writing style is helping to dispell any lingering doubts that he penned his own plays. The method could analyze not only plays attributed to Shakespeare but anonymous or controversial writings by other authors.

Professor Arthur Kinney, director of the Massachusetts Center for Renaissance Studies at the

University of Massachusetts Amherst, leads the research with Australia’s Professor Hugh

Craig, director of the Centre for Literary and Linguistic Computing at the University of Newcastle.

The researchers built a massive database containing tens of thousands of words from

Shakespeare’s works as well the works of other playwrights of his time. Then they used a method called computational stylistics to analyze the usage, occurrence, spelling and placement of phrases, as well as common and rare words.

For example, the word ‘gentle’ appears almost twice as frequently in works by

Shakespeare than in works by other writers. And Shakespearean drama frequently finds the word ‘farewell’ preceded by ‘hail’.

A computational fingerprint is created from known works and then compared with the fingerprints of unknown works to see if there is a match.

Controversy over whether Shakespeare, an ordinary, working class man from the countryside, could have authored such remarkable writing began percolating in the middle of the 19th century.

Those who doubt his ability suggest that another, more educated man, such as the Earl of

Oxford,

Edward deVere, penned the plays. Why would the Earl attribute them to Shakespeare? To deflect criticism, some claim, because Christian groups, such as the Puritans, found the theatre immoral.

During the early part of the 1600s, the gathering of a large crowd at a theatre signaled political unrest and made government officials nervous. A man of the aristocracy may have been defamed if aligned with theatrical productions.

But there has been plenty of evidence to suggest that Shakespeare did write the plays.

Shakespeare apparently wrote plays until 1611; the Earl of Oxford died in 1601. Also, at least four different publishers put Shakespeare’s dramas to print. If he had not been the author, they would have all had to keep the secret.

English

Grade 8

“The more people you had to have involved [in the conspiracy], the more likely it would have been that somebody would have blown the whistle,” says Professor Gary Taylor, director of History of Text

Technologies at Florida State University.

Kinney and Craig’s computational method adds scientific credence to the mix: “The more different kinds of data you have pointing to the same conclusion, the more confidence you have in that conclusion,” says

Taylor. The team is writing a book By Me, William Shakespeare, which will be available in late 2007 and will contain their findings.

Doubts over whether Shakespeare wrote As You Like It and other plays continue to arise.

(Image: iStockphoto).

QUESTIONS:

1. Why did the professors design a computer program to analyze literary authorship? (2)

2. a. What

four

linguistic methods are analyzed by Kinney and Craig’s computational analysis?(4) b. Define

one

method in your own words. (2) c. Give an example of any method. (1)

3. Identify one example of Shakespeare’s unique “fingerprint”. (1)

4. Using context clues, define the following words from paragraph eight AND state their parts of speech. (1 mark for definition, 1 mark for part of speech)

English

Grade 8

a. aristocracy (2) b. defamed (2) c. aligned (2)

5. Fill in the following chart with evidence from the article that supports Shakespeare as

English literature’s greatest playwright AND that denies his authorship. Please use quotation marks if quoting directly from the article and fill in ALL the blocks.

(1 mark each)

SUPPORT DENY

(6)

6. a. Using your own knowledge of Shakespeare’s writing, biography, and historical times, list two reasons why Puritans, conservative Christians, would have been outraged by

Shakespeare’s plays’ content. (2)

English

Grade 8

b. Why could this have led to young men playing women’s parts? (1)

[25 marks]

ASSESSMENT 5: A MIDSUMMERNIGHT’S DREAM Advertisement:

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: ASSESSMENT STANDARD 1 -

Writes a range of imaginative texts:

• to express imagination, ideas and feelings about

• self and others;

• to explore the creative, critical and playful use of language.

Produces a range of factual written and multimodal texts (texts using print and images) for various purposes, using a range of visual, and design elements where appropriate by means of recounts of events, research project reports, pamphlets, posters, and book reviews.

Create an advertisement for a product that could be used to:

• attract romantic love or

• repel an interested person.

1. Make sure to include at least one reference to A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

2. Make sure your colours and language align with the purpose of the product.

3. Be sure to clearly define your target market and speak to such customers.

Superbly done

4

Adequately done

3

Needs improvement 2

Unclear/

Indistinguishable

1 or 0

Clearly Identifies product and purpose

Speaks directly to target market

Persuasive elements grab reader’s attention

Effective layout design

Suitable graphics, text size, and colours

Reference to play is apparent and creative

Advertisement Rubric

Total: _________/25

English

Grade 8

MODULE 5

Writing is one of the most important skills in our society. By being able to express ourselves on paper or, more commonly today, electronically in the correct words and formats is essential.

In this Module we are going to explore different forms of written expression, both formal and informal.

Purposes for Writing

There are different reasons for why people write texts –

1. To communicate formally in a business or social activity. This is called Transactional

Writing.

2. To communicate ideas, experiences and observations. This is Creative Writing.

Transactional Writing

includes all the types of formal writing that we come across in our daily lives: newspaper and magazine articles; editorial comments; reviews of books, music and films; business letters and e-mails. Each of these has a very specific format that we need to know and need to be able to use correctly.

You can find the accepted formats for all these kinds of Transactional pieces in THE ENGLISH

HANDBOOK AND STUDY GUIDE by Beryl

Lutrin.

Creative Writing

refers to any kind of writing where the writer is expressing personal feelings and thoughts: novels; short stories; poems; plays; song lyrics; screenplays. We have looked at the structure and variations of many of these styles in other modules. In this

Module we will also give you an opportunity to attempt working in different styles.

English

Grade 8

The first kind of writing we are going to look at is Academic Writing – specifically how to structure and develop a written argument.

ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING ACTIVITY:

“Can’t read, won’t read”

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING -

Uses the writing process collaboratively and independently to generate texts:

• selects and explores topics through brainstorming, using mind maps and lists;

• organises ideas coherently in logical order to produce first drafts;

• proofreads and corrects draft by applying knowledge of language in context appropriate for the grade;

• publishes final product, paying attention to creative presentation and varied elements of design.

LEARNING OUTCOME 5: THINKING AND REASONING -

Uses language to think and reason:

• applies thinking and reasoning skills in a variety of contexts across the curriculum;

• discusses and explains the perspective and position of the author in various texts;

• explains and discusses cause and effect (e.g. ‘Why is this the cause of …?’);

• presents a counter-argument and gives reasons (e.g. ‘I disagree because…’ and ‘I support my argument with…’);

• recognises and explains why information can be considered ‘factual’ or ‘objective’;

• draws on own experience in order to substantiate point of view;

• questions and infers to solve problems and develop thinking about complex issues, ideas and emotions (e.g. human rights issues, environmental issues, personal dilemmas, crosscurricular topics).

Read this article carefully.

Can’t read, won’t read

Words: Marianne Thamm

So, Posh Spice has admitted in an interview that she has never read a book. Are we surprised?

Victoria Beckham has set a new standard in the Olympics for Disinterested People. She hasn’t even paged through her own autobiography, called Learning To Fly. For all she knows it could be a recycled Celine Dion songbook or 9/11 suicide pilot Mohammed Atta’s personal diary.

But what is really interesting about this bit of useless news is that someone at my local morning paper thought it important enough to run on page one. What this implies is that there is something shocking about someone admitting that they don’t read. It suggests that the buyers of that particular newspaper would be avid bookworms who, when they read the story, would no doubt tut-tut disapprovingly over their skinny lattes.

The truth is, the vast majority of South Africans don’t read. And I am not talking about those people who were denied an education and who are illiterate.

English

Grade 8

I’m talking about your average South African with an education, a decent job and enough spare time to pucker the upholstery on the couch watching TV. There are many, many more people who don’t (or won’t) read than those who do, which is why it is strange that Victoria

Beckham’s confession should be viewed as so newsworthy. She’s the rule, not the exception. ‘Posh

Spice

Reads’ would have been a headline much more worthy of page one.

Even George W. Bush once publicly admitted that he didn’t care much for reading. But in the meantime, someone’s clearly been brought in to smarten up the US president’s image. His book list for this year’s five-week summer sojourn on his Texas ranch reads as follows: Salt: A

World

Historyby Mark Kurlansky (484 pages), Alexander II: the last Great Tsar by Edvard

Radzinsky,

The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History by John M Barry.

‘It’s a fair bet that George Bush is the only person in the entire US (or the world, for that matter) who chose those three books to read on vacation,’ Peter Osnos of the Public

Affairs publishing house told the Los Angeles Times.

The thing about books is that they’re viewed as special, as an item that possesses a cultural currency other media do not. A book requires commitment, solitary engagement, emotional investment and imagination to read (and to write, I suppose). And though it seems as if a record number of South Africans are writing and publishing books, people still aren’t buying them in quantities enough to render writing a decent, full-time occupation.

Of course it’s different if you’re J.M. Coetzee or Zakes Mda or Marlene van Niekerk or any other of our acknowledged ‘literary’ writers. But even these authors sometimes only sell tiny quantities in South Africa. Out there, people just want to be entertained or informed.

They’re not interested in the social or political significance of the novel. They want The Da Vinci

Code; they want Lance Armstrong’s It’s Not About The Bike; they want Roberts’ Birds of

Southern

Africa.

Out of a population of around 45 million, there are only about 500 000 active book buyers in this country. And if a writer manages to sell 3 000 copies of a book, it’s a best seller.

There are many reasons books don’t sell in South Africa. They’re too expensive, we don’t have an entrenched culture of reading (at home or at school) and we haven’t found innovative ways of getting books to a reading public that might not have been exposed to them. Perhaps we’re just not publishing books that are relevant to a large number of South Africans who can read. I suspect for most people reading is just too much like hard work.

In my other life, I ghostwrite books for a living. I generally get about two to three requests a month to co-write ‘my biography’. In almost every case, the person wanting to write a book has never read one or seldom reads. At first this depressed me, but then I realized that even though people didn’t read, they still understood the value of books. That’s why someone at the paper put the Posh Spice story on page one, that’s why so many people keep writing, and that’s why there’s still hope that one day more of us will read. Valuing something is always a good start.

This article originally appeared in FAIRLADY magazine in October 2005.

English

Grade 8

You are to respond to this article by means of a written piece of work of 30 lines (about

10 word per line for an average-sized handwriting).

Choose one of the following views, which will form the main idea of your writing:

That’s disgusting!

OR

That’s m e!

The process:

• Mind Map

• A Rough Draft

• A Final (edited) Draft

1. Make a mind map of all the ideas that you have around this topic – this will help you in your planning. Make sure that you provide reasons for your statements. (Please note: you may be personal in your response, but make sure that you offer solid reasons for each one of your feelings).

2. Organise your ideas carefully into different paragraphs. Make sure that your ideas form a clear introduction, develop into a well-structured argument and come to a logical conclusion.

3. Proofread and correct all the possible mistakes you have made. Ask a classmate to read through your rough draft as well and comment on it in writing.

4. Write your final product. This must be at least a page long (about 300 words) and must have a final word count.

5. Submit all three stages for assessment.

6. Attach the rubric to your work – no work will be assessed without the rubric attached to it.

Writing an argument:

REMEMBER: To make an argument one uses the following formula –

• Make a statement which you intend to prove

(“Posh Spice does not know what is in her autobiography”)

• Provide evidence to support your opinion

(“She says she has never read a book in her life”)

• Draw a conclusion from what you have found

(“Her autobiography could have been made up by the ‘real’ author.”)

Always make a clear statement of what you believe or intend to prove, at the very beginning of the argument.

Always stay unemotional and support you view with facts. Do not become vague or use clichés: “It’s boring…” or “It’s bad …” – refers to details which show this opinion.

English

Grade 8

CRITERIA 7

Outstanding

80 – 100

6

Meritorious

70 –79

of useful process.

Carefully structured and well-presented samples of all three phases submitted.

All three phases of the writing process submitted.

Three phases submitted, but haphazardly done.

Three phases submitted but all poorly done.

One of phases not submitted

Two of phases not submitted

2

Structure

(beginning, development, ending)..

Excellent flow of all three stages,

5

Substantial

60 – 69

4

Adequate

50 – 59

3

Moderate

40 – 49

2

Elementary

30 – 39

1

Not achieved

0 – 29

1

All three phases of writing process submitted

(mind map, organised draft and final product).

Thoroughly developed examples of al three stages submitted; clear evidence

mature use of vocabulary, diction and language

Confident use of language; vocabulary range, diction and register above average

Good choice of language

– shows vocabulary range and uses correct diction and register

Fair choice of language, although vocabulary, diction or range can be developed more.

Vocabulary, diction and register need work.

Limited language usage: vocabulary, guiding reader into an enjoyable reading experience

Writing carefully and logically structured in a reader-friendly manner.

Good use of structural elements

One of structural elements not evident

Two of structural elements not clear

Structure not clear

Lack of structure had a negative impact on meaning.

3

Language usage

Excellent use of language;

corrected.

Editing needs attention – occasional errors slipped through.

Editing needs attention – many errors slipped through

Spelling and/ or language errors limits reader’s understanding of passage.

Work riddled with errors; incomprehensible

5

Quality of argument

Outstanding argument diction and register needs serious attention.

Poor language usage: vocabulary, diction and register weakly manipulated.

4

Evidence of editing

Editing immaculate

– all errors identified and corrected.

Excellent editing – very few errors slipped through.

Good editing

– all identified errors

– very persuasive.

Solid argument

– has potential for argumentative writing.

Good argument – willing to see writer’s point.

Tried to develop a good argument,

but needs to follow ideas through.

Argument needs more back-up evidence

Argument vague; substantiate ideas more concretely.

No argument; not persuasive at all.

TOTAL: _________ / 35

RUBRIC for Argumentative Writing Assignment

Date assignment was issued: _________________

Due date for assignment: _________________

English

Grade 8

DESCRIPTIVE WRITING ACTIVITY:

In this activity we are going to follow what is known as

process writing

– working from a stimulus and developing and refining the work to the final draft.

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: Writing

LESSON 1: Attempt 1:

Write a 5 to 8 line descriptive paragraph called “A Day Like Today” in class.

Describe today as best as you can. Try to not give your emotions or feelings about things.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 1:

Writes a range of imaginative texts:

• to express imagination, ideas and feelings about

• self and others;

• to explore the creative, critical and playful use of language by means of narrative and descriptive compositions, dialogues, poems, songs and letters.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4:

Uses the writing process collaboratively and independently to generate texts:

• selects and explores topics through brainstorming, using mind maps and lists;

• uses increasingly complex texts as models;

• plans and develops topic using relevant information from other sources;

• organises ideas coherently in logical order to produce first drafts;

• reflects on multiple drafts considering purpose, audience, language usage, bias, complex organisation and a few simple elements of style, and revises appropriately;

• critically reflects on own and peers’ writing and makes recommendations, showing sensitivity to the rights and feelings of others;

• proofreads and corrects draft by applying knowledge of language in context appropriate for the grade;

• publishes final product, paying attention to creative presentation and varied elements of design

Swap your paragraph with a classmate and compare what you have each written.

Fill in this table for your friend:

English

Grade 8

“A Day Like Today” Attempt 1

Writer’s Name: _________________________ Checked by: ____________________

Has the writer varied the type and length of sentences?

Are the sentences all the same – starting with the same words?

Has the writer included details of all that is happening?

Has the writer attempted to use a variety of interesting words?

How can the writer improve what is written here?

Has the writer written a descriptive piece or written about their feelings?

1. Now go outside and do the following:

• Close your eyes (cover them if you need to).

• With your eyes closed try to hear every sound around you. On a new sheet of paper write down all the sounds you can hear. Do this very simply, choose words as they come to mind.

Try not to limit your ideas.

• There is no limit to the number of words you should write, but the more there are the easier the next activity will be.

English

Grade 8

Attempt 2:

2. Now, back in class, rewrite your original paragraph, including the sounds you have heard.

3. Hand this paragraph to your friend who will check it with the following checklist:

Writer’s Name: ____________________________

Has the writer collected a variety of new words and ideas?

Has the writer adapted what was written in the original passage?

How can the writer still improve the writing?

LESSON 2: Attempt 3

4. Go outside once again and cover your ears this time. Just open your eyes and look around.

Write down everything you can see.

English

Grade 8

5. Add to what you have seen by touching things around you to see how they feel. Also try to

smell as much as you can.

6. Write down words that come to mind about what you are experiencing.

English

Grade 8

Assessment to be handed in:

7. Once you have collected enough words, rewrite your paragraph by adding these new words.

Name:_____________________________________________________

Class:____________

8. Your Teacher will assess according to the following rubric:

Assessment for Creative Writing – Working Draft

Learner’s Name: ______________________________ Total: ____________ / 15

CRITERIA Levels 6 & 7 (4 /5) Levels 3, 4 & 5 (2 / 3) Level 1 & 2 (0 / 1)

Commitment to Task Totally committed and involved.

Partially committed, but distracted.

Not interested, works only when forced.

Quality of words collected

A wide variety of interesting words.

A small collection of ordinary words.

Very few words, not very interesting.

Quality of written product

Excellent writing.

Thoughtful and interesting.

Good writing that needs improvement.

Very poor. Not taken seriously.

English

Grade 8

LESSON 3: Attempt 4

9. Using the previous drafts of your writing, do the following:

- Add adjectives (descriptive words) to add power and emotion to what you have written, eg. the whistling wind or the crashing sea.

- Consider the feelings that the experiences of the day created in you. Find words that describe these emotions: eg. elation, hysteria, despair, anxiety.

English

Grade 8

Name: ______________________________________ Class: ___________

Attempt 5: Final Draft!

10. Add in all these words and emotions and write a final draft of your paragraph. Prepare this final piece for Assessment – edit carefully to ensure that there are no grammatical, punctuation or spelling mistakes in your final product. Also hand in the Attempt 1 and the

Checklist, with your Working Draft Evidence (Attempt 3) and the Assessment.

English

Grade 8

EXTENSION WORK for CREATIVE WRITING:

You can continue this process by adding the following activities:

Attempt 6:

11. Add imagery to your writing through metaphors, similes and personification: eg. waves and cliffs clash and battle with one another.

Name: _____________________________________ Class: ______________

Attempt 5: Final Draft!

10. Add in all these words and emotions and write a final draft of your paragraph. Prepare this final piece for Assessment – edit carefully to ensure that there are no grammatical, punctuation or spelling mistakes in your final product. Also hand in the Attempt 1 and the

Checklist, with your Working Draft Evidence (Attempt 3) and the Assessment.

CRITERIA Levels 6 & 7 (4 / 5) Levels 4 & 5 (3) Levels 2 & 3 (2) Level 1 (1)

Evidence of Process being followed

The process was followed in full. Very thorough

Most of the steps completed successfully.

The process was superficially followed.

Many parts are incomplete or basic.

Evidence of editing Closely edited, few or no mistakes.

Edited but still mistakes.

Some editing, still mistakes.

No editing, many errors

Evidence of improvement

Work clearly improves with each draft.

Some improvement, but needs more.

Minor improvements, but not much change.

Hardly improves.

Learner’s commitment to Task

Total commitment.

Takes pride in work.

Mostly committed but lacks “polish”.

Starts well but lacks perseverance.

Not really involved.

Work is incomplete.

Quality of Final Piece A perfect piece of work, professional quality.

A very good piece that needs improvement.

A good idea but poorly executed.

Work is unfinished or not available for marking.

ASSESSMENT for CREATIVE WRITING – FINAL DRAFT

Due Date:________ Total: __________ / 25

English

Grade 8

Attempt 7:

12. Add setting, character and motive – where did this take place? When? Why? What?

English

Grade 8

13. For characters, create a history: names, age, descriptions of appearance and personality.

Attempt 8:

Write a character sketch using the process above.

OR

Compare a person and an animal. What characteristics do they share?

English

Grade 8

You can add to these activities by developing your own criteria – see how far you can go in creating your own story. Maybe there is a novel in you waiting to be written!

BONUS ASSESSMENT: Extra

Creative Writing

Learner’s Name: __________________ Total: ____ / 10

The learner has worked independently (2)

The learner has completed an original piece (2)

The learner has edited and formatted the work (2)

The learner has shown dedication and commitment (2)

The learner has produced work of superior quality. (2)

English

Grade 8

TRANSACTIONAL WRITING ACTIVITIES:

These activities are designed to give you an opportunity to show that you can write according to the formats and requirement of specific writing styles.

ACTIVITY 1: Writing a review.

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

Produces a range of factual written and multimodal texts (texts using print and images) for various purposes, using a range of visual, and design elements where appropriate by means of recounts of events, research project reports, pamphlets, posters, and book reviews

For this activity you need to choose

• a book,

• a CD,

• a film or even

• a performance of some kind to review.

Remember that a review has two purposes:

1. To inform a possible audience of what is available.

2. To provide an assessment of the quality of what is being reviewed.

Where Eagles Dare

English

Grade 8

TITLE:

AUTHOR / PERFORMER/ DIRECTOR

DATE / YEAR OF PUBLICATION

PUBLISHER / DISTRIBUTER

An Overview of the Content:

The basic storyline or style.

(Remember not to give away important information – do not tell the whole story!)

The Reviewer’s opinion of the work:

Is it well done?

What did you like?

What did you dislike?

Why?

(Motivate your view with examples from the work.)

A recommendation:

Who is the target market -

Who would like this?

Why?

A rating: (Make it clear what you are rating out

of – eg. four out of five stars, 6 /10.

English

Grade 8

Criteria Yes (3 / 4) Partially (1/2) No (0)

1. Is the review in the correct format for a formal review?

Correct information?

2. Has the learner edited the work?

Still many mistakes.

Untidy work.

Unedited, first draft, many errors.

3. Is the writing in the review structured logically and easy to follow?

4. Has the learner supported his/ her opinion with examples from the film?

5. Has the learner clearly made a statement or argument?

ASSESSMENT for WRITTEN REVIEW:

LEARNER’S NAME: ______________________ Total: ________ / 20

Due Date: __________________

WRITING an e-mail:

In today’s world we are communicating more and more electronically. Most people now text each other with the Short Message Service (SMS) from their cellphone provider or communicate through the internet by means of e-mail (electronic mail), Facebook or one of the other social networking services.

It is important to use the correct format for a business e-mail. It is effectively a formal letter sent electronically.

You recently bought a relatively expensive item (an ipod, a cellphone, a Playstation or

Xbox game) which is faulty.

Use this template to write a letter of complaint to the manufacturer. (You will need to either research the address or make one up.)

English

Grade 8

Compose Addresses Folders Options Search Help Fetch Calendar

English

Grade 8

Criteria Yes (3 / 4) Partially (1/2) No (0)

1. Is the e-mail in the correct format for a formal e-mail, with the correct information?

2. Has the learner edited the work?

Still many mistakes.

Untidy work.

Unedited, first draft, many errors.

3. Is the writing in the review structured logically and easy to follow?

4. Has the used the correct formal language?

5. Has the learner clearly stated the problem without being insulting or impolite?

ASSESSMENT for WRITTEN e-mail:

LEARNER’S NAME: ______________________ Total: ________ / 20

Due Date: __________________

EXTENSION ACTIVITY for

TRANSACTIONAL WRITING:

Writing a Friendly Letter

Write a letter to one of the characters in one of your setwork books in which you discuss how they could deal with a problem they are facing.

Remember to use the correct format for a Friendly Letter – this can be found in THE ENGLISH

STUDY GUIDE AND HANDBOOK by

Beryl Lutrin.

Hi! I’m Jay.

Are you a friendly letter?

English

Grade 8

Criteria Level 1 Level 2 & 3 Level 4 & 5 Level 6 Level 7

1. Correct formatting.

Incorrect format. Does not know how to set out a letter. (0/1)

Incorrect format. Lack of date.

Incorrect date, greeting or paragraphing.

(2 )

Some mistakes, but a generally good understanding of format. (3)

Good formatting, minor errors.

(4)

Correct format. (5)

2. Style and language.

Inappropriate register. No sentence and paragraph construction.

Unstructured thoughts.(1)

Poor register, syntax and structure. (2)

Satisfactory register and tone.

Adequate language and structure. (3)

Appropriate register.

Well structured letter. (4)

A carefully worded and thoughtfully structured letter. (5)

3. Content.

Cliched and poorly chosen content. Does not relate to the topic.

(1/2)

Impersonal – learner does not engage with the topic. Vague and general writing. (3/4)

Adequate content.

Covers the basic requirement set out in the topic. (5/6)

Well chosen and convincing content.

Appropriate to topic given.

(7/8

Excellent content.

Engages with topic and expresses thoughts well.

(9/10)

ASSESSMENT for LETTER WRITING:

LEARNER’S NAME: ______________________ Total: ________ / 20

Due Date: __________________

Educator’s comments:

English

Grade 8

EXTENSION ACTIVITY: Compiling a Personal Journal

The purpose of this activity is to give you an opportunity to practise writing. It is not meant for

Assessment but for you to have a chance to develop yourself through writing.

Instructions:

1. Find a book to use. There is no prescription on what this book should be – it is your personal journal, so it should be as individual as you are.

2. Decorated the journal to reflect who you are. Make it a book that you enjoy looking at and using.

3. Begin writing …THIS IS NOT A DIARY! You do not need to write every day, nor do you need to detail what you experienced that day. This Journal should reflect thoughts, feelings and ideas.

You may copy other people’s writing (eg. extracts from novels, famous quotes, song lyrics) that make an impression on you in your reading. (Of course, it’s common courtesy to acknowledge the source of anything you copy!)

4. THIS JOURNAL IS MEANT TO BE READ WITH YOUR PERMISSION ONLY! You may want your teacher to read and respond to certain passages in the Journal. YOU have the say over who read the Journal and when.

5. By seeing a variety of writing styles and observing how writers use different words and ideas, you are learning how to develop your own style. The more you use the more tools you have at your disposal.

6. Once the book is full, start a new one! It will be an interesting and informative activity in a few years for you to read over what you wrote in each Journal. It will be an informal record of your experiences.

7. Enjoy!

REMEMBER:

“A writer writes … always!”

(from the film THROW MAMA FROM THE

TRAIN)

English

Grade 8

MODULE 6

SHORT STORIES

O

nce upon a time

there was an eagle called Marty and he lived happily ever after.

The End

O

nce upon a time there was an eagle called Marty and he lived happily ever after.

The End

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 3:

Discusses the purpose, audience and context of a text.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4:

Shows understanding of information in texts:

• identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence;

• identifies and explains different points of view.

LEARNING OUTCOME 2:

Reading and Viewing

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5:

Explains how key features and the organisation of different types of texts contribute to how the text functions (e.g. poems, short novels, newspaper articles, letters, ballads, book reviews).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 6:

Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life by discussing the plot, themes, values, characters and setting.

The Structure and Style of a Short Story:

As with all writing, Short Stories have a very specific structure and style. The purpose of a

Short

Story is also different to other forms of literature. Simply put, Short Stories attempt to capture a single element, incident or moment in characters’ lives and highlight elements of human experience through this observation.

Unlike a novel, which very often traces a character’s development over a long period of time and many different incidents, the short story focuses on smaller moments. There are also fewer characters in a short story.

English

Grade 8

In other words:

• short stories are about revealing truths about human experience

• short stories focus on less information than novels

• there are fewer characters than in novels

• short stories are intended to be read in one reading

The Structure:

As with most stories, short stories follow this pattern –

1. An Exposition

, in which characters are introduced and a setting is described.

2. The Development

, where a problem is introduced or conflict arises

3. A

Climax

, where the conflict is resolved and the story is concluded.

Some writers may adapt this pattern to suit their needs. Often the conflict is set up immediately and then explanation, or exposition, is given to the reader.

In some stories the writer will deliberately give the reader an unexpected conclusion. This is referred to as an

anti-climax

. Roald Dahl’s short stories are famous for their unexpected

“twists” at the end which the reader cannot predict.

Short stories also have the normal characteristics of other forms of narrative:

1. Characters

who experience a variety of incidents.

2. Conflict

– when characters have to respond to different ideas or to other characters’ behaviour.

3. Plot,

or reasons for why events take place: the old principle of

cause and effect

– every

action leads to

a response or

reaction

.

4. Finally,

some form of Resolution

, where the

conflict is ended

either in an expected or unexpected way.

Also, like any literature, the reader can observe and deduce other meanings in the story besides the “action” or events. This is called the Theme and is the meaning of the story, which can be analysed, discussed and compared to our own personal experience of life. By observing how the characters deal with problems in their lives, we can learn how to improve our own.

A short story allows us to come to these conlusions in a simpler and quicker way than a novel would.

Some short stories, however, challenge us to develop meaning by having to supply details for

ourselves. Sometimes a writer will deliberately give us only minimal amounts of information. It is then up to the reader to use his or her imagination to “fill in the gaps”.

We will be reading two short stories this year and seeing how the authors have adapted these characteristics to share their thoughts with us.

English

Grade 8

STORY 1: “The Curious Case of Benjamin Button” by F. Scott Fitzgerald

As we do not have the copyright to this story you will need to read it by searching for it on the internet at

www.readbookonline.net/read/690/10628

Activities:

After reading the story, give a brief breakdown of each of these story elements:

1. Characters

2. The Plot of the story

3. The conflict in the story

English

Grade 8

4. The Climax and Resolution of the story

5. The Theme or Meaning of the story

Answer the following questions:

“The Curious Case of Benjamin Button”

Contextual Questions

I

and

II

1.1 Why does the doctor nastily dismiss Mr. Button?

English

Grade 8

1.2 Why is the doctor’s name, Keene, ironic?

2.1 Why must the newborn leave the hospital so urgently?

2.2 How does that plot element date the story?

2.2 How does that plot element date the story?

English

Grade 8

3 How much is a “score” if Benjamin is 70 or “threescore and ten”?

4.1 If his son had to be different, what would Mr. Button have preferred?

4.2 What does this preference tell you about the newborn’s status in society?

5.1 Explain the meaning of “slave market”.

English

Grade 8

5.2 How does this term date the story?

6 What is the setting?

7.1 Why does the newborn, elderly man fear being “made a monkey of” ?

7.2 Why does Mr. Button retort with the same fear?

English

Grade 8

8 What does Mr. Button’s “swallowing uneasily” tell you ab out him?

1.1. How is Mr. Button “perfecting the illusion” ?

III

1.2. Why is he doing this?

1.3. What would be more advantageous for Benjamin?

English

Grade 8

2.1. What event took emphasis off of Benjamin?

2.2. Why would this be so?

3. Why would Benjamin’s parents address him as “Mr.”?

4.1 Unlike newborns, Benjamin has knowledge of adult life at his birth without the experience of growing into old age. What adult skills does he possess?

English

Grade 8

4.2 Give examples of experiences he has yet to encounter. Why do you think

Fitzgerald bestows such knowledge upon Benjamin?

5 Is Mr. Button an effective father? Explain your belief by citing examples from the story.

6 What commentary on institutes of higher learning is Fitzgerald making by referencing Yale University?

7.1. Why did Benjamin not reveal his age to Hildegarde

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Grade 8

7.2. What would you have done if in his shoes? Explain.

EXTENSION QUESTION:

View the film version of THE CURIOUS CASE OF BENJAMIN BUTTON (directed by David

Fincher, starring Brad Pitt, released in 2008). Argue whether the filmmakers have accurately captured the meaning of the story.

English

Grade 8

STORY 2: “The Suit” by Can Themba

This story can be found at www.peppercombooks.com

Read this story and then give a brief breakdown of each of these story elements:

1. Characters

2. The Plot of the story

3. The conflict in the story

English

Grade 8

4. The Climax and Resolution of the story

5. The Theme or Meaning of the story

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 3:

Discusses the purpose, audience and context of a text.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 6:

Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life by discussing the plot, themes, values, characters and setting.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4:

Shows understanding of information in texts:

• identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence;

• identifies and explains different points of view.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5:

Explains how key features and the organisation of different types of texts contribute to how the text functions (e.g. poems, short novels, newspaper articles, letters, ballads, book reviews).

“The Suit”: Comprehension Test

LEARNING OUTCOME 2: Reading and Viewing

English

Grade 8

Study the dictionary definition (Text 1) and the graph (Text 2) below to answer the questions that follow.

Text 1: tragedy: [traj-i-dee] n. (pl. -dies)

1. a dramatic composition, often in verse, dealing with a serious or sad theme, typically that of a great person destined- through a flaw of character or conflict with some overpowering force such as fate or society- to downfall or destruction.

2. a lamentable, dreadful, or fatal event or affair; calamity; disaster.

Text 2:

Introduction:

Hero introduced

Setting defined

Climax:

Height of the story; the cliff-hanger where

the excitement builds.

Fall of the hero...he or she falls to tragic flaw in character.

Denouement:

The final unfolding of the plot; secrets are revealed.

HOW THE PLOT UNFOLDS FOR THE TRAGIC HERO.

Questions: Answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper.

Set your work out correctly in the Exam format, as you have been shown.

1. Who is the tragic hero of “The Suit”? Explain your reasoning. (2)

English

Grade 8

2. What is the setting of the story? (2)

3. Detail Philemon’s feelings for and behavior toward Matilda in the story’s introduction. (2)

4.1 What is the climax of “The Suit”? (1)

4.2 Describe how Philemon behaves during this high point. (2)

English

Grade 8

5.1 What is the hero’s “flaw of character”? (1)

5.2 Explain the “overpowering force” that causes this flaw to show in the hero. (1)

6. Eventually, in the denouement, surprises unfold.

6.1 What becomes of Philemon? (2)

6.2 What becomes of Matilda? (2)

English

Grade 8

7. According to the definition, there are two reasons “The Suit” is a tragedy.

Explain both reasons by referring to the definition and the short story. (4)

8. Use “tragedy” correctly in an original sentence. (1)

Total: _________/20

English

Grade 8

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: READING AND VIEWING

Responds critically to texts:

• discusses writer’s point of view;

• discusses implicit (or hidden) messages in the text, as well as bias or prejudice;

• discusses how context influences the message;

• identifies what has been left out of the text and discusses why;

• questions whether learner agrees with the messages in the text.

Discusses socio-cultural, environmental and ethical issues contained in texts and identifies the aspects of texts which carry the values related to them (e.g. content, language, artwork, point of view and characterisation).

MODULE 7

Marty the eagle plays cricket, he loves a grassy, fast wicket, so when he bowls a quick ball, he’s hoping with his all, that the batsman will strike out and nick it.

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING

Writes a range of imaginative texts:

• to express imagination, ideas and feelings about

• self and others;

• to explore the creative, critical and playful use of language by means of narrative and descriptive compositions, dialogues, poems, songs and letters.

Uses the writing process collaboratively and independently to generate texts:

• selects and explores topics through brainstorming, using mind maps and lists;

• uses increasingly complex texts as models;

• plans and develops topic using relevant information from other sources;

• organises ideas coherently in logical order to produce first drafts;

• reflects on multiple drafts considering purpose, audience, language usage, bias, complex organisation and a few simple elements of style, and revises appropriately;

• critically reflects on own and peers’ writing and makes recommendations, showing sensitivity to the rights and feelings of others;

• proofreads and corrects draft by applying knowledge of language in context appropriate for the grade;

• publishes final product, paying attention to creative presentation and varied elements of design

(optional).

TRY

English

Grade 8

Contrary to its reputation, poetry is one of the most enjoyable forms of writing.

Simply put, poetry includes any type of expressive writing that has rhyme, rhythm and imagery – from Nursery Rhymes to Hip Hop!

We are going to look at different forms of poetry, from the Traditional to the Modern, to get a clear understanding of why this is still considered one of the most important and challenging artforms.

Let’s begin by looking at some poetic terms and structures ...

1. POETIC TERMS

Research and define each of the following poetic terms and elements.

Rhyme

________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______

_________________________________________________________________________

______ this is created by assonance, which is ____________________________.

Rhythm

________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______

Very often this is created by the scansion of the poem, which means the pattern created by the number of syllables per line. Rhythm and patterning can also be created by the use of alliteration, which is

________________________________________________________________________

Imagery

_______________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

______

This can be created by the use of figures of speech such as – metaphors, which are

_____________________________________________________________ and similes, which are

_____________________________________________________________

Other devices help to create sounds which help make meaning, for example, onomatopoeia:

___________________________________________________________________

This imagery creates a feeling which is referred to as the tone or mood.

Poets also make use of puns ( __________________________________) and ambiguity (____________________________________________).

Homonyms (_______________________________________________) and homophones (__________________________________________) assist in creating ambiguity.

English

Grade 8

The message or meaning of the poem is called the Theme.

How To Analyse A Poem –

In only five easy steps!

STEP 1

: Look at the STYLE of the poem –

• Is it TRADITIONAL, with strict RHYME and METER (RHYTHM and SCANSION)?

• What is the RHYME SCHEME?

• Does it have regular length STANZAS (paragraphs)?

• Is it MODERN with FREE VERSE (it is written as ordinary conversation, with simple sentences)?

STEP 2

: Look at the LANGUAGE usage –

• Has the poet used “poetic” language? Look up words you don’t understand.

• Is there COLLOQUIAL language or SLANG?

• Is the poem FORMAL or INFORMAL / CASUAL?

STEP 3

: What POETIC DEVICES have been used?

• Identify METAPHORS, SIMILES, PERSONIFICATION and ONOMATOPOEIA.

• Are there reoccurring IMAGES and SYMBOLS?

• Has the poet used AMBIGUITY or PUNS?

• Do you understand the meaning of the IMAGERY?

STEP 4

: What was the POET’S INTENTION in writing this poem?

• Who do you think the INTENDED AUDIENCE is?

• Is this a NARRATIVE (story) poem?

• Is this a DESCRIPTIVE or LYRIC poem, sharing an emotion, experience or observation with the reader?

• Is the poem intentionally SERIOUS?

• Did the poet want to draw the reader’s attention to a specific ISSUE or CONCERN?

• Was the poem meant to be entertaining or amusing?

• Is the poet concerned with WORDPLAY and playing with language?

STEP 5

: What is the THEME or MEANING in the poem?

• What MESSAGE are we meant to take from the poem?

• Does the poem TEACH A LESSON about life?

• Identify how the elements discussed in the first four steps help to develop meaning in the poem.

English

Grade 8

2. Pattern Poetry

Look at each of the following poems and then identify what structure each has. Identify the rhyme scheme, rhythm and scansion of each.

A:

Limericks

There was an old lady in Peru

Who dreamt one night she ate her shoe

She woke that night

With a terrible fright

To find out it was horribly true

B:

Haiku a bird flies in air wings straight to the sun on high freedom and comfort

C:

Cinquain

Shadows

Dark shapes

Lie on ground

Cover the quiet ground silhouettes

D:

A Picture Poem

A

TALL

LONELY

OAK TREE

WINDS HOWL

LEAVES SHAKE

ACORNS CLATTER

DOWN

TO THE DRY GROUND

Brenda B. Covert

(edhelper.com)

E:

A Simile / Metaphor Poem

Like a basket

We knew enough to begin with, but after a while we didn’t know enough anymore;

So we put what we did know into something like a basket, with your arms for handles and my feet to steady it in case it had to be set down suddenly.

What we didn=t tell the basket was where to stand.

By the time we realised it was necessary to do so, it had run off with everything we knew to begin with and most of what we=ve found out since.

The general opinion was that since the feet the basket ran off on were mine, it befell me to track it down.

I agreed, but since I had no feet, it was obvious that someone had to carry me.

You declined because you had no arms.

Love is like that in the city.

- Robert Hunter, from Sentinel, 1993.

English

Grade 8

POETRY ACTIVITY 1: Creative Writing

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING

Demonstrates basic skills in a range of features of writing appropriate to the text type

(e.g. reveals character, establishes the setting and develops the plot in narrative and descriptive writing, and uses simple imagery in poetry).

LEARNING OUTCOME 5: THINKING AND REASONING

Thinks creatively:

• visualises, predicts, fantasises and empathises with sensitivity to make meaning and solve problems;

• imagines possibilities and alternatives to expand thinking (hypothesises and speculates);

• considers differences and uses them creatively and positively (e.g. differences in experience, culture, interest and personality);

• writes experimentally to explore ideas, emotions and imaginative experience;

After studying these kinds of poems, write an original example of each:

1.

Haiku

2.

Cinquain

3.

Limerick

4.

A metaphor or simile poem

5.

A picture poem

Remember to:

• follow the correct structure in each of the poems

• Make use of figurative language in your poems

• Write about something familiar and important to you

• Make sure that your language usage is accurate: do not allow any errors to creep in

• Make sure that your poems are your own: plagiarism is a serious crime, whether it is a published author or your mother!

English

Grade 8

CRITERIA 7

Outstanding

80 – 100

6

Meritorious

70 –79

5

Substantial

60 – 69

4

Adequate

50 – 59

3

Moderate

40 – 49

2

Elementary

30 – 39

1

Not achieved

0 – 29

1

Did you write an example of each of the poems?

2

Did you use the correct structure for each of the poems?

3

Was your language usage accurate?

4

Did you make use of imagery?

5

Were your poems original and creative?

TOTAL: _________ / 35

ASSESSMENT for POETRY WRITING:

Date assignment was issued: _________________________

Due date for assignment: ____________________________

3: TRADITIONAL POETRY: THE SONNET

The Sonnet is the most famous traditional poetic structure.There are two basic sonnet forms:

The Italian or Petrarchan Sonnet, first used by a poet named Francesco Petrarca (1304 –

1374), is a poem which has 14 lines



8 lines (an octet)



2 quatrains (4 lines in each)

 a rhyme scheme of

abba



6 lines

(a sestet)



2 tersets (3 lines in each)

 a rhyme of scheme

cdc dcd

The octet usually contains a description, while the sestet contains an application, or deeper meaning, of what was discussed in the octet. Often a problem is described and then an answer is provided.

English

Grade 8

NB: Other variations to the abba rhyme scheme are:

• abab

• aabb

• abcb

The Shakespearian Sonnet has 14 lines



The first 12 lines



3 quatrains (4 lines in each)

 a rhyme of scheme

abab, cdcd, efef

The final 2 lines

 a rhyming couplet (2 lines)



Rhyme scheme

gg

Here the three quatrains contain descriptions, while the couplet only refers briefly to a deeper statement. Shakespeare , by developing his version of the sonnet, questioned the structure of the Italian sonnet and turned it into an argument, rather than a description with an application.

Shakespeare, in other words, was a bit of a rebel!

Now, to see what a sonnet looks like and how it works, study the following sonnet and answer the questions related to it:

My Mistress’ Eyes are Nothing Like the Sun

My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun;

Coral is far more red than her lips’ red;

If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;

If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.

I have seen roses damask’d, red and white, 5

But no such roses see I in her cheeks,

And in some perfumes there is more delight

Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.

I love to hear her speak, yet well I know

That music hath a far more pleasing sound. 10

I grant I never saw a goddess go;

My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:

And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare

As any she belied with false compare.

(William Shakespeare, 1564-1616)

English

Grade 8

1. Label the rhyme scheme. (2)

2. What sonnet type is this poem an example of?

Give TWO reasons for your answer. (3)

3. What does the speaker’s mistress look like?

Give FOUR of the possible eight attributes in your own words. (4)

4. Using the four qualities you have listed in Question 3, suggest what the “ideal” woman would look like. (4)

English

Grade 8

5. Why, do you think, did the poet let the world know that his mistress does not meet the ideal woman’s requirements? (3)

6. Do our value systems differ from those of the seventeenth century? (2)

7. What can we learn about the speaker from this poem? (2)

Total: _________/20

POETRY GROUP ACTIVITIES:

ANALYSING AND WRITING SONNETS

Your teacher will divide your class into groups of four or five pupils each.

In your groups, discuss one of the following sonnets

(Your teacher will assign each group a poem to analyse).

Complete the following assignments:

• Identify the kind of sonnet of which this poem is an example. Motivate your answer

• Explain your understanding of the poem. Motivate your reasoning.

• Identify figures of speech and other significant devices in the poem. Make sure that you explain your choices and decisions clearly.

English

Grade 8

• Plan a presentation of your findings. You have to teach the poem now to the other four groups in the class. Make sure that all the group members are involved in the presentation and contribute in a meaningful manner. Remember that your class mates and teacher may ask you to clarify points you have made – treat these queries courteously

• Listen to the other groups’ presentations as well. Make notes in the spaces next to the

relevant poems and ensure that you understand those poems well (one of these poems will be in the exam).

Poem 1: The Laurel Axe – Geoffrey Hill (1932 -- )

Autumn resumes the land, ruffles the woods with smoky wings, entangles them. Trees shine out from their leaves, rocks mildew to moss-green; the avenues are spread with brittle floods.

5 Platonic England, house of solitudes, rest in its laurels and its injured stone, replete with complex fortunes that are gone, beset by dynasties of moods and clouds.

It stands, as though at ease with its own world,

10 the mannerly extortions, languid praise, all that devotion long since bought and sold, the rooms of cedar and soft-thudding baize,

1 tremulous boudoirs where the crystals kissed in cabinets of amethyst and frost.

1 i.e billiard rooms in great old British homes; the “soft-thudding baize” refers to the soft green cloth covering billiard tables.

Poem 2: Sonnet 23 – John Berryman (1914 – 1972)

They may suppose, because I will not cloy your ear –

If ever these songs by other ears are heard –

With “love” and “love,” I loved you not, but blurred

Lust with strange images, warm, not quite sincere,

5 To switch a bedroom black. O mutineer

With me against these empty captains! gird

Your scorn again above all at this word

Pompous and vague on the stump of his career.

Also I fox “heart,” striking a modern breast

10 Hollow as a drum, and “beauty” I taboo;

I want a verse fresh as a bubble breaks,

As little false … Blood of my sweet unrest

Runs all the same – I am in love with you –

Trapped in my rib-cage something throes and aches!

English

Grade 8

Poem 3: How soon hath Time --, John Milton (1608-1674)

How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of youth,

Stolen on his wing my three and twenty year!

My hasting days fly on with full career,

But my late spring no bud or blossom shew’th. showeth

5 Perhaps my semblance might deceive the truth,

That I to manhood am arrived so near,

And inward ripeness doth much less appear,

That some more timely-happy spirit endu’th. endoweth

Yet be it less or more, or soon or slow,

It shall be still in strictest measure even equal

10 To that same lot, however mean or high,

Toward which Time leads me, and the will of Heaven;

All is, if I have grace to use it so,

As ever in my great Taskmaster’s eye.

Poem 4: For that he looked not upon her – George Gascoigne (ca. 1535-1577)

You must not wonder, though you think it strange,

To see me hold my louring head so low sullen

And that mine eyes take no delight to range

About the gleams which on your face do grow.

5 The mouse which once hath broken out of trap

Is seldom ticéd with the trusted bait enticed

But lies aloof for fear of more mishap,

And feedeth still in doubt of deep deceit. suspicion

The scorchéd fly, which once have ‘scaped the flame,

Will hardly come to play again with fire,

Whereby I learn that grievous is the game

Which follows fancy dazzled by desire:

So that I wink or else hold down my head,

Because your blazing eyes my bale have bred. Misery

Poem 5: Whoso list to hunt – Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542)

Whoso list to hunt, I know where is an hind,

But as for me, alas, I may no more;

The vain travail hath wearied me so sore,

I am of them that furthest come behind.

5 Yet may I by no means my wearied mind

Draw from the deer, but as she fleeth afore

Fainting I follow; I leave off therefore,

Since in a net I seek to hold the wind.

Who list her hunt, I put him out of doubt,

As well as I, may spend his time in vain.

And graven with diamonds in letters plain,

There is written her fair neck round about,

“Noli me tangere,

2

, for Caesar’s I am,

And wild for to hold, though I seem tame.”

2

Touch me not. King Henry VIII’s wife, Anne Boleyn, is thought to have been formerly Wyatt’s mistress.

English

Grade 8

Your presentation will be assessed by means of the following task list:

TASK PERFORMED

 or



WEIGHT SCORE

1 Did you identify the sonnet type and motivate it properly?

5

2 Did you explain your understanding of the poem accurately with good motivation?

5

3 Did you identify figures of speech etc accurately with motivation?

5

4 Was the whole group involved meaningfully in the presentation?

5

5 For the individual: were you a respectful, inquisitive audience member?

5

TOTAL:

25

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: READING AND VIEWING

Responds critically to texts:

• discusses writer’s point of view;

• discusses implicit (or hidden) messages in the text, as well as bias or prejudice;

• discusses how context influences the message;

• identifies what has been left out of the text and discusses why;

• questions whether learner agrees with the messages in the text.

Discusses socio-cultural, environmental and ethical issues contained in texts and identifies the aspects of texts which carry the values related to them (e.g. content, language, artwork, point of view and characterisation).

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING

Writes a range of imaginative texts:

• to express imagination, ideas and feelings about

• self and others;

• to explore the creative, critical and playful use of language by means of narrative and descriptive compositions, dialogues, poems, songs and letters.

Uses the writing process collaboratively and independently to generate texts:

• selects and explores topics through brainstorming, using mind maps and lists;

• uses increasingly complex texts as models;

• plans and develops topic using relevant information from other sources;

• organises ideas coherently in logical order to produce first drafts;

• reflects on multiple drafts considering purpose, audience, language usage, bias, complex organisation and a few simple elements of style, and revises appropriately;

• critically reflects on own and peers’ writing and makes recommendations, showing sensitivity to the rights and feelings of others;

• proofreads and corrects draft by applying knowledge of language in context appropriate for the grade;

• publishes final product, paying attention to creative presentation and varied elements of design

(optional).

English

Grade 8

Having discussed and read two different sonnets, use this opportunity to write your own sonnet.

You may use any topic, as long as it is personal (remember that writing from personal experience helps you to express yourself better, as you write about something that you know).

Planning process (Make sure that you also submit the planning process.)

• write down ideas

• transform the ideas into

 images

 figures of speech

• group the images together

• Contract the image groups

Criteria

• Originality: are your thoughts your own? Have you developed these thoughts in a unique way?

• Have you stuck to one of the sonnet structures?

• Did you make use of figures of speech?

• Brevity: did your ideas come across concisely and clearly?

• Language: was your language usage accurate – did you proofread your work?

Here is the assessment rubric that will be used to mark your poem!

CRITERIA 7

Outstanding

80 – 100

6

Meritorious

70 –79

5

Substantial

60 – 69

4

Adequate

50 – 59

3

Moderate

40 – 49

2

Elementary

30 – 39

1

Not achieved

0 – 29

1

Originality: are your thoughts your own? Have you developed these thoughts in a unique way?

Very original, readable and definitely stands out from the rest.

Clearly original.

Thoughts developed in a unique way.

A fair amount of original thoughts. Tried to develop in own way.

Be careful of molding it too much on an existing poem.

Some original ideas, but tended to copy an existing poem or idea.

Original ideas, but spoilt by manner in which thoughts developed.

Very little original thoughts

– read this before. Glib and mundane development of thoughts.

No original thoughts at all.

No development of thoughts.

use of figures of speech?

Excellent, thoughtful use of figures of speech.

Images clearly developed.

Good use of figures of speech with well developed images.

A good attempt at use of figures of speech. Some images could have been developed more clearly.

Tried to use figures of speech, but more development needed.

Tried to use figures of speech, but clichéd and forced.

Very little figures of speech used.

No figures of speech

4

Brevity: did your ideas come across concisely and clearly?

2

Have you stuck to one of the sonnet structures?

Stuck meticulously to one of the sonnet structures – an excellent example of

Grade 8 sonnet writing.

Very well structured.

Tried to stick to sonnet structure – a few deviations.

Tried, but deviated.

Has an idea of what the sonnet structure is about, but deviated a lot.

Limited idea of what sonnet structure is about.

No idea of sonnet structure

3

Did you make

A prime example of brevity and concise, clear images.

Good example of brevity and concise images

An attempt at brevity: images fairly clear and concise.

Brevity must not be confused with telegram style!

Tried to be brief, but some images take too long to develop.

Rambling, vague: you did not plan sufficiently!.

No evidence of brevity or thought development

5

Language: was your language usage accurate

– did you proofread your work?

Excellent editing – very clear language usage, adding to meaning.

Seamless editing.

Good editing

– minimal errors slipped through – try to eliminate these as well.

Some editing

– spend some more time and effort on this.

Language needs more editing – evidence of proofreading, but more care must be taken.

Many errors in language and meaning: much more editing required.

Littered with errors, both in language and in meaning: you did not proofread your work at all!

TOTAL: _________ / 35

English

Grade 8

4: CONTEMPORARY POETRY

We are going to study three poems which are more modern.

The first two poems relate to the novel THE OUTSIDERS by S.E. Hinton.

Poem 1: Leather Jackets, Bikes and birds

The streets are noisy with he movement of passing motors

The coffee bars get fuller.

The leather-Jacket group begin to gather. stand, and listen, pretending they are looking for trouble. 5

The juke box plays its continuous tune, music appreciated by most.

The aroma of Espresso coffee fills the nostrils and the night.

Motor bikes pull up.

Riders dismount and join their friends in the gang.

They stand smoking, swearing, playing with the girls; making a teenage row. 10

They pretend not to notice the drizzle falling out of the dark, because you’ve got to be hard to be a leather-jacket.

A couple in the corner, snogging, hope the motor lights will not be dipped to much to much, so that the others will see them.

They must all have recognition; 15 there must always be enough leather-jackets around them, the same as theirs.

The street lamp on the side of the street shows the rain for what it is - wet and cold.

But it does not show their faces for what they are.

Robert Davies

1. Consider two ways that this poem can be described as having a “modern” style.

Questions

English

Grade 8

2. Suggest why the poet has used the word “pretend” twice (in lines 5 and 11) in the poem.

3. What stereotypes of teenagers are used in this poem? Are these accurate?

4. Explain what point the poet is making in the last line:

“But it does not show their faces for what the are.”

English

Grade 8

Poem 2: Nothing Gold Can Stay by Robert Frost

Nature’s first green is gold,

Her hardest hue to hold.

Her early leaf’s a flower;

But only so an hour.

Then leaf subsides to leaf.

So Eden sank to grief.

So dawn goes down to day.

Nothing gold can stay.

Robert Frost

1. What does the word “gold” imply?

2. Explain how “Nature’s first green” can be “gold”.

3. Account for the reference to Eden

4. Discuss how these poems relate to the themes in The Outsiders.

English

Grade 8

Poetry Test: Read the poem below and then answer the questions.

As you have been taught, read the poem at least three times. Circle and look up words you don’t know. Label the line numbers (every five). Make notes in the margin next to the poem on theme, symbols, plot, etc. THEN, AND ONLY THEN, answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.

Boy on a Swing

Slowly he moves to and fro, to and fro, then faster and faster he swishes upside down.

His blue shirt billows in the breeze like a tattered kite.

The world whirls by: east becomes west, north turns south; the four cardinal points meet in his head.

Mother!

Where did I come from?

When will I wear long trouser?

Why was my father jailed?

Oswald Mtshali

1. Find in the poem:

1.1. one simile. (1)

1.2. two examples of onomatopoeia. (2)

1.3. two examples of alliteration. (2)

2.1. What is one possible setting for this poem? (2)

2.2. What details in the poem lead you to this setting? (2)

3. Besides referring to the directions, what else could

“the four cardinal points/ meet in his head” (11 -12) mean? (1)

4.1. What does “tattered” tell you about the boy’s shirt? (1)

4.2. How is this adjective a metaphor for the boy’s home life? (2)

5.1. Why does the boy ask his mother three questions in the last stanza? (2)

5.2. How does this relate back to his swinging? (2)

6.1. What is a metaphor? (1)

6.2. Explain the extended metaphor of the boy and the swing. (2)

Total: _________/20

English

Grade 8

Poetry Test: Read the poem below and then answer the questions.

As you have been taught, read the poem at least three times. Circle and look up words you don’t know. Label the line numbers (every five). Make notes in the margin next to the poem on theme, symbols, plot, etc. THEN, AND ONLY THEN, answer the following questions in complete sentences on a separate sheet of paper.

Name Class

Question Answer

1.1

1.2

1.3

2.1

2.2

3

4.1

4.2

5.1

5.2

6.1

6.2

Poetry Test: Boy on a swing. 20 Marks

English

Grade 8

MODULE 8

VISUAL LITERACY

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5:

Explains how key features and the organisation of different types of texts contribute to how the text functions (e.g. poems, short novels, newspaper articles, letters, ballads, book reviews).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 7:

Analyses techniques used to create particular effects in visual, written and multimedia texts such as:

• the effectiveness of literary devices, and language used;

• the impact of design elements (e.g. type and

• position of artwork, use of colour);

• the impact of camera and film techniques (e.g. close-ups, zoom shots, camera angles, flashbacks).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 8:

Responds critically to texts:

• discusses writer’s point of view;

• discusses implicit (or hidden) messages in the text, as well as bias or prejudice;

• discusses how context influences the message;

• identifies what has been left out of the text and discusses why;

• questions whether learner agrees with the messages in the text.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 9:

Discusses socio-cultural, environmental and ethical issues contained in texts and identifies the aspects of texts which carry the values related to them (e.g. content, language, artwork, point of view and characterisation).

LEARNING OUTCOME 3:

Reading and Viewing

In this Module we will focus on texts comprised mostly of visual components as opposed to the more verbal texts we have addressed in other Modules.

English

Grade 8

We live in a very visual society where we are faced with symbols and images in every direction. It is necessary for us to be able to recognise and decipher these visuals. It is not enough to simply understand the meaning of what these texts show, we also need to look at what attitudes and values they could be carrying. In other words we need to know the difference between

Facts and Opinions

, or to give more literary terms, the

denotation

and

connotation

of words.

Denotation

refers to the dictionary meaning of a word, while

connotation

means the extra meaning that we apply to words according to our own experience and knowledge.

For example, if we look at the word dog – everyone knows what a dog is, don’t they?

According to the Collins Concise Dictionary:

dog

n a domesticated canine mammal occurring in many breeds that show great variety in size and form...

But this does not tell you that some dogs are dangerous – like the Doberman that bit you last week, while others are gentle like your little Maltese!

That’s connotation – the extra emotions that words create for each one of us.

In every text we need to look for the way in which the writer is using words to influence our thinking – very often this is tied to images.

An excellent example of this is advertising – let’s look at some adverts ...

1. VISUAL LITERACY: Advertising

- Let’s analyse this advertisement:

1. The Composition:

Firstly the image is actually made up of one main image that has been repeated, though reversed and turned upside down. These images have been tied together by the repeated words

AMOR

AMOR

and the picture of a rose. In the centre at the bottom is a bottle and the brand’s name cacharel followed by the slogan: THE NEW

FEMALE FRAGRANCE.

2. The Target Market:

Clearly from the slogan this product is aimed at women. From the picture we can suggest that it is meant for young women in particular.

3. The Message:

Using very few words we can imply that this product is a perfume which, when used by young women, will make a women attractive and bring her

AMOR

(love).

4. Other elements:

Although the picture is in black and white here, we can assume that it would be in full colour in a magazine.

English

Grade 8

What colours do you think would be used in this text?

Why do you say this?

How well do you think the visuals and the words compliment each other?

Now consider this advertisement – analyse it in the same way that we analysed the first one:

The Composition:

The Target Market:

The Message:

Other elements:

English

Grade 8

How effective do you think these advertisements are?

Which one would be more attractive to the target market? Why?

Analyse the following advertisements in the same way.

ADVERTISMENT 1:

The Composition:

The Target Market:

The Message:

Other elements:

English

Grade 8

Identify the figure of speech used here and explain the effect it has.

Discuss the effect that the image has on the viewer – why has the photo been taken from this angle?

ADVERTISMENT 2:

The Composition:

The Target Market:

The Message:

Other elements:

English

Grade 8

Explain the puns used in this text.

Compare and contrast this advertisement with Advertisement 1

Of course, images do not have to have words in order to have meaning or to create a reaction in the viewer.

Consider these images and analyse the mood or atmosphere each evokes in the viewer.

Which of these images do you prefer? Why?

Image 1:

English

Grade 8

Image 2:

Although many people see cartoons as silly jokes and dismiss them easily, some cartoons are actual very complex texts. It is very hard work to create a text that is so simple and direct, yet has a complex meaning.

Consider this cartoon:

2 Another form of visual text which you will be asked to analyse throughout your High School career, is cartoons.

English

Grade 8

What comment does this cartoon make about children today?

Why do you think the cartoonist has drawn the poster on the wall?

What comment does this poster make on the situation?

What words would you use to describe the facial expressions of the teacher and the learner?

Do you think this cartoon’s statement is valid in our society?

Do you find this cartoon humorous? What amuses you about it?

English

Grade 8

Analyse each of these cartoons – look at the visual details, the language techniques used, the meaning of the cartoon and the success of the cartoon in conveying its message.

Cartoon 1: From HÄGAR THE HORRIBLE HAS A GO by Dik Browne

Cartoon 2:

Cartoon 3:

Cartoon 4:

Cartoon 5:

“Reality TV”

English

Grade 8

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 1: Writes a range of imaginative texts:

• to express imagination, ideas and feelings about

• self and others;

• to explore the creative, critical and playful use of language by means of narrative and descriptive compositions, dialogues, poems, songs and letters.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4: Uses the writing process collaboratively and independently to generate texts:

• selects and explores topics through brainstorming, using mind maps and lists;

• uses increasingly complex texts as models;

• plans and develops topic using relevant information from other sources;

• organises ideas coherently in logical order to produce first drafts;

• reflects on multiple drafts considering purpose, audience, language usage, bias, complex organisation and a few simple elements of style, and revises appropriately;

• critically reflects on own and peers’ writing and makes recommendations, showing sensitivity to the rights and feelings of others;

• proofreads and corrects draft by applying knowledge of language in context appropriate for the grade;

• publishes final product, paying attention to creative presentation and varied elements of design.

VISUAL LITERACY ACTIVITY: Composing a Cartoon

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: Writing

After analysing the cartoons above, attempt to create your own original cartoon . Your cartoon must be drawn in black and white (you may shade in pencil – grey) and should not consist of more than two panels.

Accompany your cartoon with a short explanation of what you were wanting to achieve in the cartoon.

When you are done, assess your work using the checklist below.

ASSESSMENT for CARTOON ACTIVITY:

Teacher’s Assessment: Due Date: _______________

Learner’s Name: __________________ Total: __________ / 10

Criteria Yes (2) / Partially (1) No (0)

Is the cartoon original?

Has the learner only used black and white?

Has the work been completed on time?

Has the work been checked and edited?

Is the cartoon successful?

English

Grade 8

Criteria Yes (2) / Partially (1) No (0)

Is the cartoon original?

Did I plan my work?

Did I follow instructions?

Is the cartoon successful?

Am I satisfied?

Self Assessment:

Comments / Suggestions on how I could improve this work:

3. VISUAL LITERACY:

GRAPHS

Another form of visual literacy that we need to be familiar with is reading information from tables or graphs.

Read these Graphs

Generation Next – The

Sunday Times Youth Brand

Survey, May 25, 2008, and then answer the questions which follow.

GRAPH 1 GRAPH 2

GRAPH 3 GRAPH 4 GRAPH 5

English

Grade 8

Questions: Answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper. Remember to set your work out in the correct format, with the heading “Visual Literacy: Graphs”.

1.1. Suggest what these graphs show about the youth’s priorities. (2)

1.2. To what extent could these graphs represent a stereotype of the youth market? (2)

1.3. In your opinion is this stereotyping is true or not? Give reasons. (2)

1.4. How could the survey have been conducted to avoid stereotyping? (2)

2.1. Explain the meaning of the term “Tweens”. (1)

2.2. What is the difference between “Teens” and “Young Adults”? (2)

2.3. Why would the brand support of Tweens differ from Teens or Young Adults? (1)

2.4. Quote a statistic from one of the graphs to support your answer to 2.2. (1)

3.1.Explain what you understand the word “brand” to be. (2)

3.2.What do you think “brand loyalty” would mean? (1)

4. Analyse the purpose of this kind of survey. For whom is it done? Why is it done?

How will it be effective? (4)

Total: _________/20

English

Grade 8

MODULE 9

NOVEL READING

THE OUTSIDERS by S.E. HINTON

(The cover of the 40th Anniversary Edition of the novel, published by Puffin Modern

Classics in

2007)

English

Grade 8

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 1

Reads spontaneously and often for pleasure and information across the range of texts studied, discusses personal response and the kinds of texts enjoyed, and recommends texts to others.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 2

Reads aloud and silently for a variety of purposes consolidating the appropriate reading strategies developed in earlier grades.

Answer these questions related to the cover design:

1. What elements of the novel are emphasised by this illustration?

2. What can you tell about the novel from the fact that this is 40th Anniversary

Edition?

3. Comment on the tagline “The original teenage rebel story”.

As with the other novel we read this year (The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole) we are working with LEARNING

OUTCOME 3: READING and these ASSESSMENT STANDARDS:

English

Grade 8

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 3

Discusses the purpose, audience and context of a text.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 4

Shows understanding of information in texts:

• identifies main ideas and explains how the details support the main idea;

• questions ideas where appropriate;

• makes judgements and draws conclusions about ideas on the basis of evidence;

• identifies and explains different points of view.

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 5

Explains how key features and the organisation of different types of texts contribute to how the text functions (e.g. poems, short novels, newspaper articles, letters, ballads, book reviews).

ASSESSMENT STANDARD 6

Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life by discussing the plot, themes, values, characters and setting.

Let’s begin by looking at the b ackground, story and characters:

Background

The Outsiders was written in 1967 by a seventeen year girl called Sue Hinton, based on conflict

she observed between gangs in her High School in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The book quickly became popular with teenagers who could identify with the issues raised in it. In 1983 it was made into a film by Oscar winning director Francis Ford Coppola, starring many young actors who would become moviestars over the next decade.

S. E. Hinton continued writing novels about teenagers, such as That Was Then, This Is

Now,

Rumble Fish and Tex. Some of the characters from The Outsiders re-appeared in these other stories.

THE STORY

The story of The Outsiders is told to us by the main character, a fourteen year old boy called

Ponyboy Curtis. Ponyboy and his brothers belong to group of boys labelled “Greasers” because of the grease they use on their hair. They come from the poor side of town and are always getting

“jumped” or attacked by the rich kids’ gangs – called “Socs” (short for Social.) The gangs are separated by their clothing, lifestyles and even their taste in music.

Remember that the story was written and is set in the 1960s,

so there are references to culture and popular icons from the time period. Investigate the references listed below to help you understand the characters more.

English

Grade 8

Ponyboy compares himself to

Paul Newman

in the opening paragraph of the novel. What made

Paul Newman so special in his youth? (He was known as a “heartthrob” because teenage girls loved him so much!)

The Greasers are described as

Elvis

fans, whereas the Socs prefer

The Beatles

.

Listen to some of Elvis Presley’s music and then compare it to The Beatles. Do you think the music accurately represents the different gangs’ attitudes?

The Greasers base their attitude and “look” on

James Dean

(“JD”), an actor from the

1950s who famously only made three films before dying in a car crash. His most famous film was

Rebel

Without A Cause. How does this film relate to The Outsiders?

Later in the novel Ponyboy reads the novel Gone With The Wind by Margaret Mitchell. It is the story of Scarlet O’Hara, a girl whose life is destroyed by The American Civil War (1861 –

1865).

The story was made most famous by the 1939 film version which is still the most popular film of

all time.

What other references can you find that add to the story?

As we noted earlier, Ponyboy narrates the story – this means that it is a

First Person

Narrative

.

Explain what effect this type of storytelling have on the reader?

English

Grade 8

We learn that Ponyboy has two brothers, Darrel and Sodapop, who he lives with since his parents’ deaths. His closest friend is a boy called Johnny Cade who comes from an abusive homelife and is very nervous after being beaten by a group of Socs.

Their other friends, who form a lose “gang”, are Steve Randle, Two-Bit Mathews and

Dallas

Winston. Although they act and talk tough, Dally is the only one who is a petty criminal

(Pony calls him a “hood”) and he is often involved in proper gang fights.

Ponyboy meets and begins a friendship with a Soc called Cherry Valance. They discuss the stupidity of the fighting between the Socs and the Greasers.

After a tragic incident Ponyboy run away to an abandoned church and only return after another incident. The story ends with Ponyboy having to come to terms with the consequences of the unnecessary violence caused by the gang conflict. His English teacher tells him to find a theme to write about to pass the term ...

As you read the novel make simple summaries of each of the following incidents.

1. Ponyboy leaves the movie house

2. At the drive-in

English

Grade 8

3. The incident in the park

4. Johnny and Ponyboy at the Church

5. The heroes, the hospital and the rumble

6. Dally and the police

English

Grade 8

7. Johhny’s letter and Ponyboy’s story

Other notes or comments:

English

Grade 8

CHARACTERS:

Write a brief description for each of these characters.

PONYBOY CURTIS

JOHNNY CADE

SODAPOP CURTIS

DARRY CURTIS

DALLY WINSTON

English

Grade 8

TWO-BIT MATHEWS

STEVE RANDLE

CHERRY VALANCE

BOB the Soc

RANDY the Socs

English

Grade 8

CURLY SHEPARD

Other Characters:

THEMES AND SYMBOLS IN THE NOVEL:

Certain ideas and images are repeated in The Outsiders.

These

themes

and

symbols

add up to create the meaning and message of the story.

Define the terms Theme and Symbols.

English

Grade 8

THEME is________________________________________________

A SYMBOL is _____________________________________________ a. Themes:

Write a short comment about what the novel shows for each of these themes.

The conflict between different groups in society (eg. rich and poor, etc)

The importance of friends and family

The importance of expressing yourself in writing

The dangers of stereotyping people

First define what stereotyping means ______________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

English

Grade 8

Provide examples of stereotyping from your experience:

Consider the poem “Leather jackets, bikes and birds” and then comment on what points it makes about stereotyping.

Symbols

Throughout the novel there are re-occurring images that we need to discuss and explain:

Clothing and hairstyles

English

Grade 8

Sunsets

LEARNING OUTCOME 2: SPEAKING

Communicates ideas and feelings creatively and expressively with a great degree of confidence and with limited assistance, using a range of selected oral text types (e.g. dramas, role-plays, songs).

Demonstrates a range of interaction skills by participating actively in group discussions, conversations, debates and group surveys, and while so doing:

• tackles important issues (e.g. social and ethical issues related to the environment and human rights);

• asks appropriate questions;

• takes on different roles;

• acknowledges others’ opinions and disagrees politely when necessary;

• motivates own point of view;

• gives and receives criticism;

• persuades others;

• bridges gaps by asking questions to clarify meaning, giving choices, keeping responses open-ended, and showing genuine interest;

• shows sensitivity to the rights and feelings of others in conversation where appropriate;

• challenges insensitive or discriminatory use of language.

ORAL AND WRITTEN ASSESSMENT:

“THE OUTSIDERS” Role -Play

English

Grade 8

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: READING AND VIEWING

Demonstrates understanding of the text, its purpose and its relationship to own life by discussing the plot, themes, values, characters and setting.

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING

Uses the writing process collaboratively and independently to generate texts:

• selects and explores topics through brainstorming, using mind maps and lists;

• uses increasingly complex texts as models;

• plans and develops topic using relevant information from other sources;

• organises ideas coherently in logical order to produce first drafts;

• reflects on multiple drafts considering purpose, audience, language usage, bias, complex organisation and a few simple elements of style, and revises appropriately;

• critically reflects on own and peers’ writing and makes recommendations, showing sensitivity to the rights and feelings of others;

• proofreads and corrects draft by applying knowledge of language in context appropriate for the grade;

• publishes final product, paying attention to creative presentation and varied elements of design.

English

Grade 8

For this Activity individuals in the class will be given roles to research, prepare and then perform in the Trial. These role-players will be told two days in advance and will need to go back and read up on their characters in the novel.

The main roles are: The Prosecution; The Defence; Ponyboy; Johnny; members of the

Greaser gang; members of the Socs. More details for each role are given below.

Instructions: This activity consists of two parts:

Activity 1 - A role-play in which Ponyboy and Johnny are put on trial for killing Bob the

Soc.

Activity 2 - A written report on the trial.

What you need to do:

If you have been given a role, you will be part of the trial. If you do not have a role, you are considered part of the Jury who will be asked to vote on the final verdict.

It will be to your benefit to make notes during the court proceedings.

Each person with a role will receive specific instructions on what to do.

Once the trial is over you need to:

Pony boy and Johnny

: Write a diary entry about your experiences. Explain your feelings and responses to the trial and verdict.

The Prosecution and Defence

: Write a report on the trial and the outcome.

The Witnesses

: Write a report or diary report in which you discuss your point of view of the trial.

The Jury

: Write a report on the court case and its outcome. Explain whether you agreed with the final verdict of the court.

Here is an outline of all the various functions for the different characters in the role play. Read your bit carefully before the actual role play starts.

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: THE PROSECUTION

What is your role?

You need to draw up and read out the charges against the accused

(Ponyboy Curtis and Johnny Cade). Then you need to convince the jury that they are guilty.

What must you do?

Write down and ask questions about the murder, to prove their guilt. Call witnesses (Randy the Soc, Cherry, Ponyboy, Johnny). Make a summation speech explaining why they are guilty and what punishment they deserve.

English

Grade 8

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: THE DEFENCE

What is your role?

You need to draw up and read out reasons to convince the jury why the accused (Ponyboy Curtis and Johnny Cade) are not guilty, because they were acting in self defence.

What must you do?

Write down and ask questions about the murder, to prove their innocence. Call witnesses (Randy the Soc, Cherry, Ponyboy, Johnny, members of the gang).

Make a summation speech explaining why they are not guilty and what punishment (if any) they deserve.

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: PONYBOY

What is your role?

You need to be prepared to answer any questions about what happened on the night of Bob’s death. You need to know all the details and facts.

What must you do? Y

ou must be ready to appear on the witness stand and explain what happened and convince the judge and jury that you and Johnny were victims of the Socs and acted in self defence.

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: JOHNNY

What is your role?

You need to be prepared to answer any questions about what happened on the night of Bob’s death. You need to know all the details and facts.

What must you do?

You must be ready to appear on the witness stand and explain what happened and convince the judge and jury that you and Ponyboy were victims of the Socs and acted in self defence.

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: CHERRY

What is your role? You

need to be prepared to act as a character witness for Bob and

Ponyboy. You need to know all the details and facts.

What must you do?

You must be ready to appear on the witness stand and explain what you know about Ponyboy, as well as your understanding of the Socs.

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: RANDY

What is your role?

You need to be prepared to act as a character witness for Bob. You need to know all the details and facts.

What must you do?

You must be ready to appear on the witness stand and explain what you know about Bob’s death and the events in the Park, as well as your understanding of the

Soc’s behaviour.

English

Grade 8

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: TWO BIT

What is your role?

You need to be prepared to act as a character witness for Ponyboy and

Johnny. You need to know all the details and facts.

What must you do?

You must be ready to appear on the witness stand and explain what you know about Ponyboy and Johnny’s history.

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: SODAPOP

What is your role?

You need to be prepared to act as a character witness for Ponyboy and

Johnny. You need to know all the details and facts.

What must you do?

You must be ready to appear on the witness stand and explain what you know about Ponyboy and Johnny’s history.

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: DARRY

What is your role?

You need to be prepared to act as a character witness for Ponyboy and

Johnny. You need to know all the details and facts.

What must you do?

You must be ready to appear on the witness stand and explain what you know about Ponyboy and Johnny’s history.

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: MARCIA

What is your role?

You need to be prepared to act as a character witness for Bob and

Ponyboy. You need to know all the details and facts.

What must you do?

You must be ready to appear on the witness stand and explain what you know about Ponyboy, as well as your understanding of the Socs.

OUTSIDERS ROLE-PLAY: STEVE

What is your role?

You need to be prepared to act as a character witness for Ponyboy and

Johnny. You need to know all the details and facts.

What must you do?

You must be ready to appear on the witness stand and explain what you know about Ponyboy and Johnny’s history.

English

Grade 8

The Trial will now take place in class and it may take as many as three lessons for all the evidence to be heard. You Teacher will take the role of the judge and will decide on the procedure that will be followed.

Conventionally a trial follows these steps:

1. The Prosecution read out the charges against the Accused.

2. The Accused plead guilty or not guilty.

3. The Prosecution make a statement of intent to show how they intend to prove the

Accused are guilty.

4. The Defence make a statement of how they intend to prove the Accused are innocent –

OR- if the Accused plead guilty, the Defence may argue for a light sentence by providing reasons for leniency.

5. Each side (Prosecution and Defence) have opportunity to call and question witnesses.

Every

Witness must raise their right hand, place their left hand on a copy of the novel and repeat:

“I Swear to tell the truth, the whol e truth and nothing but the truth. So help me

The Outsiders.”

6. Usually the Accused will be the last to give testimony. Once all the testimony has been heard the Judge will allow the Prosecution and Defence to sum up their respective cases in a

Closing

Argument.

7. The Judge will appoint a foreperson for the Jury and ask the Accused to leave the courtroom.

The Jury will then vote whether the Accused are guilty or innocent. They may also vote on the sentence to be given.

8. The Accused return and are asked to stand while the Judge asks the Jury if they have a verdict. The foreman reads the verdict, after which the Judge passes sentence.

From this point, the role-play is over and each individual is responsible for their own piece of written work.

You will be individually assessed according to the rubrics that follow.

English

Grade 8

CRITERIA 7

Outstanding

80 – 100

6

Meritorious

70 –79

5

Substantial

60 – 69

4

Adequate

50 – 59

3

Moderate

40 – 49

2

Elementary

30 – 39

1

Not achieved

0 – 29 role play

Excellent engagement with role; in-depth understanding of role

Confident with a clear understanding of the role

Confident and familiar with the role.

Tried hard, did research the role.

Tried hard, researched role but needs more confidence

Very little research done.

Not confident.

Unconvincing, did no research.

Writing exercise

3

Planning and information

Perfect planning and structure, all information relevant

Very useful information; carefully planned and structured

Participation in role-play

1

Participation Totally committed, completely involved.

Committed and strongly involved.

Involved and interested.

Involved and interested, but needs to maintain focus

Attempt to be involved, but needs to concentrate more: listen!

Lost interest quickly and disrupted proceedings

Not involved at all.

2

Quality of

Good information, well planned and structured.

Planning done, but more structure needed

Haphazard planning; more structure needed

Very little planning, no structure, little information.

Totally unplanned, little relevant information.

4

Use of language

Excellent editing; seamless writing

Well edited, no mistakes.

No mistakes, some editing.

Some editing despite editing

Some mistakes, not much editing.

Frequent mistakes; much more editing needed.

Many mistakes, not edited.

5

Knowledge of THE

OUTSIDERS

Perfect knowledge, obviously knows the book well

Good knowledge; careful reading done

Good knowledge, evidence of reading done.

Some knowledge, but should spend more time reading

Some knowledge, not much reading done.

Little knowledge, not enough reading.

Knowledge very limited; no understanding because of no reading

TOTAL: _________ / 35

Activity 1: “The Outsiders” Role -Play Assessment Sheet

Name of Learner: _____________________________________ Class:____________

Activity 2: “The Outsiders” Written Work

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: Assessment Standard 1:Writes a range of imaginative texts:

• to express imagination, ideas and feelings about

• self and others;

• to explore the creative, critical and playful use of language by means of narrative and descriptive compositions.

Assessment Standard 2:

Produces a range of factual written and multimodal texts (texts using print and images) for various purposes, using a range of elements where appropriate by means of recounts of events.

Assessment Standard 3:

Demonstrates basic skills in a range of features of writing appropriate to the text type (e.g. reveals character, establishes the setting and develops the plot in narrative and descriptive writing).

Assessment Standard 4:

Uses the writing process collaboratively and independently to generate texts:

• selects and explores topics through brainstorming, using mind maps and lists;

• plans and develops topic using relevant information from other sources;

• organises ideas coherently in logical order to produce first drafts;

• reflects on multiple drafts considering purpose, audience, language usage, bias, complex organisation and a few simple elements of style, and revises appropriately; proofreads and corrects draft by applying knowledge of language in context appropriate for the grade; publishes final product, paying attention to creative presentation and varied elements of design.

English

Grade 8

Remember to hand proof of planning ( a mind-map and rough draft) for your writing.

Make sure that you have taken the time to edit this work and remove all mistakes in spelling and grammar.

Your final piece should be 300 words long.

Assessment Rubric Learner’s Name: ____________________________________________

Criteria Levels 6

& 7 (4 / 5)

Levels 4

& 5 (3)

Level 3 (2) Levels 1 & 2 (0

/ 1)

Correct format for a report.

Carefully planned and edited – checked rough draft present.

A rough draft, edited, but still mistakes.

A rough draft, but poorly edited.

Incomplete.

Incorrect format, many errors.

Proof of

planning and editing

Carefully chosen content. Covers the topic.

Adequate content with gaps.

A rough draft, but poorly edited.

Incomplete.

No planning.

Appropriate content.

Carefully chosen content. Covers the topic.

Adequate content with gaps.

Poorly chosen content, barely covers the topic.

Much of the content is irrelevant.

Original use of content.

Learner’s personality clear in the writing.

Some originality, not sustained.

Many unoriginal ideas. Little original content.

Unoriginal, simply repeats other ideas.

Total: _________/20

Collage Assignment: “Nothing Gold Can Stay”

Read and discuss the poem

Nothing Gold Can Stay

by Robert Frost in Chapter 5 of The

Outsiders.

Now, using any media you can find, produce a collage that shows the main themes of the poem.

Remember that your collage may include pictures, photographs, sketches and words.

Writes a range of imaginative texts:

• to express imagination, ideas and feelings about

• self and others;

• to explore the creative, critical and playful use of language.

Produces a range of factual written and multimodal texts (texts using print and images) for

various purposes, using a range of visual, and design elements where appropriate.

English

Grade 8

Learner Name:_____________________________________________Class:

_________________

CRITERIA 7

Outstanding

80 – 100

6

Meritorious

70 –79

5

Substantial

60 – 69

4

Adequate

50 – 59

3

Moderate

40 – 49

2

Elementary

30 – 39

1

Not achieved

0 – 29

1

Quality of

Collage.

An excellent collage: carefully planned and meticulously executed.

A well planned and executed collage.

A good collage. Clearly planned.

Some evidence of planning.

Partially done

Untidy and random.

No care taken.

Messy and disorganized

Not done.

Unavailable for marking

2

Relevance to the text.

Themes of the poem of represented imaginatively.

Clear connection to the text.

Interprets the ideas well.

Connection to the text.

Interprets the ideas.

Tried to work with text, but

stays very literal.

Partial relevance but not structured enough to make sense.

There is no clear connection to the poem.

Random pictures.

Hashed together: no pictures, a rewrite of text

3

Overall presentation.

Clever and inspiring use of materials.

Original and eye-catching.

Interesting use of materials

A good attempt at variety; neat and interesting presentation.

A fair attempt at variety; tried to be neat.

Some variety of contents, but unimaginatively presented.

Ordinary.

Very little evidence of variety.

No variety of materials. Dull.

4

Use of language

Original and unexpected use of language.

Interesting use of language.

The language is used well as part of the presentation.

A fair attempt at using language as part of the presentation.

Some careless mistakes.

Unimaginative use of language.

Random mistakes.

Language used haphazardly.

Very little language.

Spelling mistakes

5

Level of understanding shown.

Deep understanding.

Good interpretation and insight shown

Good understanding.

A solid attempt at interpretation.

Shows understanding.

An attempt made to interpret the meaning

A fair understanding.

More depth needed.

Superficial understanding shown. Did not really try to get to grips with the concepts.

Limited understanding.

Basic words not clear.

Very little understanding.

Only did the work because it was enforced.

TOTAL: _________ / 35

EXTENSION ACTIVITY:

The Outsiders Comparative Literary Writing

LEARNING OUTCOME 4: WRITING

Uses the writing process collaboratively and independently to generate texts:

• selects and explores topics through brainstorming, using mind maps and lists;

• organises ideas coherently in logical order to produce first drafts;

• proofreads and corrects draft by applying knowledge of language in context appropriate for the grade;

• publishes final product, paying attention to creative presentation and varied elements of design.

Now that you have read the book “The Outsiders”, written by S. E. Hinton, and you have viewed the film based on the book, directed by Francis Ford Coppola in 1982, you now need to write a comparison between the two texts. Your writing should be about 200 words (20 lines) long.

English

Grade 8

To assist you to know what to discuss, consider these questions:

The Outsiders

– which one is better: the book or the film?

• Were the two texts identical? What changes were made? Why? Were the changes necessary?

Did these changes improve the storytelling?

• Were the actors cast to play the characters well chosen? Was their acting believable?

• Did the film capture the mood and atmosphere of the novel?

• Could anything in the book or the film have been improved?

Make sure that you:

• follow the writing process: prepare an initial mind map, first draft containing proof of editing, and a final draft

• state your preference in your opening sentence

• provide evidence throughout your writing to support your case

• constantly compare and contrast details in the book and the film: show that you know both the book and the film

• explain and expand on your statements that you make

• complete your thoughts on one idea before you move on to the next idea

• do not simply identify content, explain why it was done this way

Your work will be assessed by means of the following rubric.

CRITERIA Levels 6 & 7 (4 /

5)

Levels 4 & 5 (3) Level 3 (2) Level 1 & 2 (0 / 1)

1 Quality of comparison

Outstanding observations.

Detailed comparisons

Satisfactory comparison, not always supported with examples.

Similarities and differences identified, but not explained.

Very poor comparison.

No examples or details given.

2 Knowledge of the film and book

Excellent knowledge shown.

Good knowledge, but not detailed.

Adequate knowledge. Clearly relies on the film or novel.

Only knows the film, cannot provide details.

3 Language usage Mature and carefully selected language. No errors.

Good language,

not always well chosen. Some errors.

Too many language errors, which affect the quality of the writing.

Language is very poorly used.

Incorrect register.

Many errors.

4 Quality of argument

Carefully, logically structured argument. All statements proved.

Adequate argument. Not always supported.

Some errors in logic.

Weak argument.

Very little support.

Some illogical statements.

Illogical argument.

Unsupported and hard to follow.

5 Structure and planning

Carefully planned and perfectly structured. All information is ordered and clear.

Good planning and structure, though inconsistent.

Some planning and an attempt at structure.

Too many disconnected ideas.

No evidence of planning.

Random ideas.

Unstructured

Total: _________/25

English

Grade 8

Extension assignment: The Outsiders Comparative Literary Writing

Name Class

English

Grade 8

MODULE 10

ORAL ACTIVITIES

These are Oral activities which your teacher will ask you to perform at different times throughout the year.

The assessment will go towards you Oral Year Mark, which counts 25% of your Final

Mark.

UNPREPARED SPEECH

Gives oral presentations with a great degree of accuracy and creativity, paying attention to:

• clear and audible enunciation;

• pausing;

• variation in tempo and volume;

• purpose and audience;

• posture and body language;

• different presentation modes;

• register;

• tone;

• different social cultural conventions;

• appropriate figurative devices such as climax, anti-climax and hyperbole

(exaggeration for effect).

You will be asked to draw a random topic. You will have two minutes to prepare a speech of about one minute long on that topic.

Follow these steps in your preparation:

• interpret the topic as interestingly as you possibly can

• prepare cue cards that will assist you on your presentation

• make sure that your speech has a proper structure – introduction, body and conclusion

• make sure that your content is accurate and interesting

• ensure that your speech do at least one of the following: amaze, amuse, educate or entertain the audience

.

LEARNING OUTCOME 2: SPEAKING

Communicates ideas, facts and opinions on challenging topics clearly and accurately and with a greater degree of coherence, using a range of factual oral text types (e.g. discussions, debates).

English

Grade 8

CRITERIA Levels 6 & 7 (3) Level 4 & 5 (2) Level 3 (1) Levels 1 & 2 (0)

Use of voice

Carefully controlled voice.

Good use of voice.

Sometimes inaudible.

Inaudible. Muffled voice.

Eye contact

Looks directly at audience.

Good eye contact. Some eye contact, not sustained.

Poor eye contact, reading.

Preparation

Keywords on cue cards, hardly used.

Cue cards used as a guide.

Whole speech written out, read.

No cue cards, cards disorganised.

Content

Relevant and interesting.

Adequate content, mostly relevant.

Some good content, not always relevant.

Poor content.

Repetitious and often irrelevant.

Ability to work with restrictions

Sticks to time limits precisely.

Mostly works within time limits.

Struggles to meet time limits.

Speech is too long or too short.

You will be assessed as follows:

Learner’s Name: _____________________________________ Unprepared Speech

achievement

(4)

Competent achievement

(3)

Partially achieved (2)

Not achieved

(1)

Choice of passage:

Carefully chosen passage, rehearsed.

Appropriate choice, some rehearsal.

Poor choice, rehearsed.

Random choice, unrehearsed.

Motivation for

Total: _________/15

Prepared Reading Assessment

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: Reading

Reads spontaneously and often for pleasure and information across the range of texts studied, discusses personal response and the kinds of texts enjoyed, and recommends texts to others.

Reads aloud and silently for a variety of purposes consolidating the appropriate reading strategies developed in earlier grades.

Discusses the purpose, audience and context of a text.

Choose a passage from your setwork book and practise reading it. You will be asked to read it out aloud to the class.

Some hints:

• Choose a passage that has a logical beginning and a logical ending.

• Do not read for too long – try to read about three quarters of a page.

• Choose a passage that allows you to interpret and display your ability to read in the voice of characters.

• Show emotion and vary you tone while reading.

• Be able to discuss the context of your passage and also explain why you chose to read this particular extract.

English

Grade 8

You will be assessed as follows:

Learner’s Name: _____________________________________ Prepared Reading

CRITERIA Outstanding

choice

Carefully motivated, convincing.

Adequate motivation.

Some motivation, but not convincing.

Poor motivation, cannot express choice.

Eye contact

Reads to the listener, makes regular contact

An attempt to make contact.

Inconsistent contact, not sustained.

No eye contact, relies on text.

Use of Voice

Clear, modulated tone. Varies volume and emphasis.

Makes an attempt to vary tone and emphasis.

Monotone. Very little modulation.

No variation. One tone and level.

Almost inaudible.

Interpretation

Interprets well. An attempt at interpretation.

Some interpretation but not sustained.

Very little interpretation.

Hesitant and tentative.

Total: _________/20

Unprepared Reading Assessment

LEARNING OUTCOME 3: Reading

Reads spontaneously and often for pleasure and information across the range of texts studied, discusses personal response and the kinds of texts enjoyed, and recommends texts to others.

Reads aloud and silently for a variety of purposes consolidating the appropriate reading strategies developed in earlier grades.

Discusses the purpose, audience and context of a text.

Your teacher will ask you to read a passage from a text with which you are unfamiliar. You need to show that you are able to read any text provided, clearly and coherently.

English

Grade 8

You will be assessed as follows:

Learner’s Name: _____________________________________ Unprepared Reading

CRITERIA Outstanding achievement

(4)

Competent achievement

(3)

Partially achieved (2)

Not achieved

(1)

Approach to text

Enthusiastic and confident.

Attempts to be confident.

Begins confidently but falters.

Hesitant and intimidated.

Recognition of foreign words / content

Approaches new words with confidence, makes effort to pronounce correctly.

Makes an attempt to pronounce correctly. Mostly confident.

Hesitates over unfamiliar terms and phrases..

Struggles and attempts to avoid the unfamiliar.

Eye contact

Reads to the listener, makes regular contact

An attempt to make contact.

Inconsistent contact, not sustained.

No eye contact, relies on text.

Use of Voice

Clear, modulated tone. Varies volume and emphasis.

Makes an attempt to vary tone and emphasis.

Monotone. Very little modulation.

No variation. One tone and level.

Almost inaudible.

Interpretation

Interprets well. An attempt at interpretation.

Some interpretation but not sustained.

Very little interpretation.

Hesitant and tentative.

Total: _________/20

ASSESSMENT FOR INFORMAL ORALS / CLASS DISCUSSION

Throughout the year your teacher will be assessing your ability to speak and respond in class conversation and discussion.

Communicates ideas and feelings creatively and expressively with a great degree of confidence and with limited assistance.

Communicates ideas, facts and opinions on challenging topics clearly and accurately and with a greater degree of coherence, using a range of factual oral text types (e.g. discussions, debates).

English

Grade 8

Demonstrates a range of interaction skills by participating actively in group discussions, conversations, debates and group surveys, and while so doing:

• tackles important issues (e.g. social and ethical issues related to the environment and human rights);

• asks appropriate questions;

• takes on different roles;

• acknowledges others’ opinions and disagrees politely when necessary;

• motivates own point of view;

• gives and receives criticism;

• persuades others;

• bridges gaps by asking questions to clarify meaning, giving choices, keeping responses open-ended, and showing genuine interest;

• shows sensitivity to the rights and feelings of others in conversation where appropriate;

• challenges insensitive or discriminatory use of language.

Learner’s Name: _____________________ Informal Oral

Criteria Achieved (2) Partially achieved

(1)

Not Achieved (0)

Does the learner participate in discussions and conversations?

Yes, provides reasoned responses.

Has to be invited to give a response.

No. Often seems disinterested.

Does the learner ask relevant questions?

The learner questions when appropriate.

Not all questions are relevant or well formulated.

No. The learner only responds when prompted.

Does the learner add opinions or thoughts to discussions.

Tries to give relevant comments and observations.

Sometimes gives irrelevant responses.

Not all comments relate.

No. The learner often displays a lack of involvement.

Does the learner

listen to others’ responses?

Yes, allows other views and responds appropriately.

Sometimes attempts to dominate or ignores other views.

Either dominates or withdraws from discussions.

Does the learner express thoughts simply and accurately?

Yes. Answers and questions are always well thought through.

Sometimes speaks without thinking first.

Gives very basic, noncommittal comments or responses.

Total: _________/10

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