Hormone Chart Completed

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CHAPTER 9
HORMONES TEACHER NOTES
Like the nervous system, the endocrine system controls body activities, but it acts more slowly.
Endocrine glands produce chemicals called HORMONES that act on relatively distant TARGET
ORGANS.
Define hormone. Chemical messengers that are carried in the blood to act on target organs.
Responsible for long-term regulation
NAME OF HORMONE
GLAND OF
ORIGIN
FUNCTION OF HORMONE/
TARGET ORGANS
CALCITONIN
THYROID
STIMULATES CALCIUM SALT DEPOSIT IN BONE
PARATHYROID HORMONE
(PTH)
PARATHYROID
OSTEOCLASTS DEGRADE BONE MATRIX AND
RELEASE Ca++ into blood.
INSULIN
PANCREAS
(beta cells of islets
GLUCAGON
PANCREAS
(alpha cells of
islets)
Most body cells take up glucose
Glucose uptake by liver, stored as GLYCOGEN
(So, if insulin not working, blood sugar remains high,
but cells are deprived).
LIVER BREAKS DOWN GLYCOGEN
(GLYCOGENOLYSIS) AND RELEASES GLUCOSE
TO BLOOD.
GROWTH HORMONE (GH)
ANTERIOR
PITUITARY
METABOLIC HORMONE (MANY ORGANS), BUT
MAINLY LONG BONES, THUS DETEMINING
HEIGHT.
(See box page 287 for many benefits of therapeutic
GH).
THYROXINE
THYROID GLAND
MAJOR METABOLIC GLAND, DETERMINES RATE
AT WHICH “EVERY CELL IN BODY” BURNS
GLUCOSE
FOLLICLE STIMULATING
HORMONE (FSH)
ANTERIOR
PITUITARY
LUTEINIZING HORMONE
(LH)
ANTERIOR
PITUITARY
CATECHOLAMINES
(Epinephrine and
Norepinephrine)
MELATONIN
ADRENAL
MEDULLA
STIMULATES FOLLICLE (GROWING EGG W/
PROTECTIVE CELLS) PRODUCTION IN
FEMALES, AND SPERM PRODUCTION IN MALES
TRIGGERS OVULATION IN FEMALES,
STIMULATES TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN
MALES
MAINTAIN “FIGHT OR FLIGHT” RESPONSE
SPEEDS HEARTRATE, DILATES RESP.
PASSAGEWAYS, RAISES BLOOD GLUCOSE
“SLEEP TRIGGER’ AND MAY INHIBIT OVARIES
OF PRE-ADOLESCENT FEMALES.
PINEAL GLAND
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