AP EURO FINAL STUDY GUIDE Use this study guide to help you

Use this study guide to help you prepare for the Semester One Final. This guide is an outline of much of what we have
covered this year so far. Use this outline to structure and focus your studying. For each major event, make sure you
know as much information as possible. Details and years do matter. Use the following tips to help you as you study
Focus on the 5 W’s – Who What Where When Why
Cause / Effect for events, ideas…etc is very important
Know the map of Europe, and what countries exist historically over time
Keep an eye on social change / reactions over time
Know which groups/classes/areas have different opinions or involvements with certain topics
Use the P.E.R.S.I.A. acronym to help gather information
Don’t forget to pay attention to the big picture – overarching ideas, ideologies, problems…etc
Try to connect as many movements/ideas together as you can
YOU HAVE TO FILL IN THE DETAILS – names, dates, events, ideas, treaties,…etc
Crises of the 14th Century
Black Death – 1347/48 reaches Europe, Yersinia Pestis, fleas on rats on ships, one third to one half the
population will die, Great Famine weakens Europe before Black Death arrives, reactions include blame
on Jews and flagellants, artistically the Dance of Death or Danse Macabre (skeletons and death in daily
life) show a dark turn for Europeans. Outbreaks of Plague will hit Europe for hundreds of years, but
none as devastating as the 14th century. After Black Death, there were more jobs, and not as many
people to feed. Less need of farming led to more opportunities in work for those that survived. Socially,
plague helps marriage and birth rate increase, and also education rose in this time.
100 Years War
Great Schism
The Renaissance 1350-1492
Humanism, the Arts
Political Changes 1340-1492
Consolidation in Eastern and Western Europe
Early Exploration
Portugal & Spain, New World-Discovery & conquest
Protestant Reformation
Printing Press
Christian Humanism
Church abuses
Martin Luther
Luther’s political opposition & escape
Other reformers – Calvin, Zwingli…etc
English Reformation (Anglicanism)
Social Reactions - Peasants War, Anabaptists
Protestant changes to society & protestant based reforms
Catholic Counterreformation – Council of Trent, Jesuits…etc
High Renaissance
The Court, Court life and Court politics – Castiglione, Machiavelli
16 Century Warfare
Who is fighting & why
How is fighting changing?
How is war being paid for?
Peace of Augsburg
Religious Wars 1560-1618
French Wars of Religion – St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, Edict of Nantes, Politiques…
Spain’s decline
England, Elizabeth I, Spanish Armada
30 Year’s War
Causes and course of the war
Who was involved
Peace of Westphalia
Who gained most? Who lost most?
17 Century Economic crisis
Recession of early 1600’s
Consequences of recession – famine, disease
Impact on peasants, the family
Arts & World Views during the “Age of Crisis”
Arts – Theater, Mannerism, Baroque
Natural Law & curiosities about life
Scientific Revolution
Astronomy & the Astronomers – their discoveries
Theories/changes and reactions (positive and negative)
Tycho Brahe’s Moose (*not really)
The scientific method
Witchcraft and Witch trials
State Building – The age of Absolutism
French Absolutism
How power is created & maintained
Beaucracy, military, dealing with the nobility
Building projects, religion
Absolutism in Central & Eastern Europe
What form does each countries absolutism take?
How does it differ from France?
Don’t forget the Ottoman Turks
Constitutionalism (NOT ABSOLUTISM)
English Civil War
Leaders, people, and groups involved (and what each wants)
Causes, course of war, and consequences
Role of religion in politics
Glorious Revolution of 1688
English Civil War’s impact on political thought
Social Contract Theory – John Locke, Thomas Hobbes
Dutch Constitutionalism
Constitutionalism in English Colonies
The Search for Order
The Arts – Milton, Baroque, Classicism
Women’s roles
Religion – fighting paganism
How to handle / deal with the poor
The Atlantic System 1690 – 1740
Plantations / impact of slavery on New World, Africa, and Europe
Justification of slavery
Settlement of the Americas
Rise of piracy as a result of increased world trade (thanks Mercantilism)
What European countries have colonies, and where?
Consumerism beginning
Changes in consumption by Europeans
Changes in Society (Early 18th Century)
Agricultural Revolution – causes, where, and its impacts
The Arts – Rococo, Music for the public, literacy increasing, and novels
Religious revivals
State Consolidation in the 18th Century
War of the Spanish Succession 1701 – 1713
Life after Louis XIV
Power shifts – GB rise, Dutch eclipse
England’s Constitutionalism continues – Hanoverian take over, creation of Prime Minister
Russia Under Peter the Great
Peter’s brand of absolutism
Power balance shifts in Eastern Europe
Early Enlightenment Thought
Why do people have more time to think
Impact of scientific revolution on people’s minds/thought
Travel literature
The Enlightenment
Philosophes and the ideas of each
Key ideas and principles of the Enlightenment
What inspires / helps Enlightenment thought
Effects on Religion
Effects and pressure on the State
Effects on Society – who adopts E thought, who dislikes it, how does society adapt to age of E
Popular culture during the age of Enlightenment
Enlightened Despots and their reforms
Power conflicts during the Era of Enlightenment
War of Austrian Succession
Seven Year’s War
First Partition of Poland
Rebellions / Resistance mid 18th century
General causes & role of E thought
Pugachev Rebellion
Wilkes Affair
Gordon Riots
American Revolution – E influence on it, and how it influences others
How will Enlightenment influence future rebellions
Revolutions in the low countries (late 1700’s)
Influences and outcomes
French Revolution
France pre –revolution – Enlightenment Ideas, society & 3 estates, financial crisis, food shortage
Rulers and their weaknesses
Timeline of key events of the Revolution (causes and outcome of each)
Key people & groups and what ideas and desires each had
Major ideas
Phases of Revolution
Revolutions impacts – government, politics, society, religion, other countries…
Spread of Revolutionary ideas – impact on Poland and French colonies in Caribbean
Napoleon’s Rise to power
During French Revolution
Coup d’etat and eventual emperorship
Emperor Napoleon’s Rule
How he ran his government
New social hierarchy
Expanding the empire
Napoleon’s Civil Code
What it entailed
How was it revolutionary? Conservative?
The Army and Napoleon’s Conquests
How was army run / created
Major battles 1800-1815
Territories gained, and how map of Europe was redrawn
How new territories were governed
Continental System – what was it, why was it created, and why did it fail
Resistance to Napoleon’s rule and empire
Napoleon’s Downfall
Spanish War for independence
Invasion of Russia
Abdication / Elba / The Hundred Days
St Helena
Restoration of Louis XVIII
The Restoration of Europe
Congress of Vienna 1815 – key people, their ideas, and reactions to FR and NAP
Conservatism – why so influential now
What is being restored and why?
Religion’s come back
Romanticism challenges Conservatism
Main ideas, people, styles, and what they concentrate on
Romanticism and Nationalism
Trouble in the 1820’s and 1830’s
Political revolts and resistance to conservatism
Uprisings/revolts – what caused them and what was the outcome
Spain, Italy, Greece, Russia, Latin America
Revolution in France 1830
Reform Bill of 1832 in Great Britain
Early causes
People, inventions, resources
Why Britain first
Impact of railroads / factories
Impact on people
Work conditions, pay, city life, environment
New working class
Bourgeoisie vs Proletariat
Causes, consequences for social and daily life
Impact on agriculture and production of food
The Social Question and responses to it
Reforms – political, social, religious
Women and domesticity
Imperialism V Colonialism
Impacts of Industrialization and Urbanization on society
Changing social order
Class struggles
What role should the government have
New Ideologies ( and existing ones)
What is each idea? Who tends to follow the idea? What brought it about? What will it change? How do we see
examples of these ideas carried out?
Liberalism vs Conservatism
Revolutions of 1848
Hungry 40’s
Where are these revolutions taking place
What is causing them to occur
Who is involved and what do they want
What are the outcomes
You can use the following chart if you like to help you reorganize information century by century.
________th Century – don’t just list – describe, explain, analyze, and connect as much as you can!
Social / Society
Imperial (only in
19th Century)
Pre 19th century,
Industiral (only
in 19th century)
What big ideas and trends are in this century?
Who is powerful? Who is weak?
What is society / daily life like? For poor, middle and upper classes?
What is influencing events in this century from before?
What events/people will influence future events, and how?