Unit Two Essentials

Unit 2: French & Indian War/Causes of the American Revolution
Enduring Understanding
A desire for self-determination and/or political
and economic change is at the core of most
Guiding Questions:
● What were the causes/effects of each of the significant events which led to the American
● What were the reasons for writing the Declaration of Independence?
● How did the Enlightenment and other contributing theories impact the writing of the
Declaration of Independence?
● How did the writing of the Declaration impact the Revolution?
● How are Patriots and Loyalists alike and different?
1. A sense of unfair economic policies following the French & Indian War & the lack of
representation in Parliament created resentment among colonists and contributed to the
spirit of revolution.
2. Political writings encouraged people to support independence & provided principles that still
guide America today.
Assurance Statements:
Assurance Terms
Essential Questions
● What is the impact of war on a society?
● Why does conflict develop?
● How do new ideas motivate change?
● What would you be willing to fight and
die for?
Civic Virtue
Minute Men
Navigation Acts
New Terms
Petition for redress
Sons of Liberty
Unalienable rights
Writs of Assistance
TEKS and Content
1) History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877. The student is
expected to:
(1.A) identify the major eras and events in U.S. history through 1877, including … revolution, drafting of the Declaration of
Independence, …, and describe their causes and effects;
(1.B) apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and
(1.C) explain the significance of the following dates: … ; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence;
French & Indian War
Albany Plan of Union—Join or Die Cartoon
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Impact of war on western settlement—Pontiac’s
Rebellion & Proclamation of 1763
Impact of war debt on policy of salutary neglect
American Revolution
Stamp Act
Townshend Acts
Boston Massacre
Boston Tea Party
Intolerable/Coercive Acts
Battles of Lexington & Concord and
Bunker Hill
Declaration of Independence—
adopted in 1776
(4) History. The student understands significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected
(4.A) analyze causes of the American Revolution, including the Proclamation of 1763, the Intolerable Acts, the Stamp Act,
mercantilism, lack of representation in Parliament, and British economic policies following the French and Indian War;
(11.C) describe how different immigrant groups interacted with the environment in the United States during the 17th century
Key Concepts of French & Indian War
 Map of Before & After 1763
 Albany Plan – Join or Die (Benjamin Franklin); connect to principle of federalism—rejected because colonies did not want to
give up power to a central government
 Economic influences
o Desire to control Ohio Valley to profit from fur trade caused conflict between British & French settlers & governments
o Britain practiced salutary neglect toward the colonies prior to 1763
o Debt due to the war (role of William Pitt)
o Strict enforcement of taxes following the war
 Role of George Washington (leadership qualities)
 Treaty of Paris 1763
 Proclamation of 1763
o Parliament forbade colonial settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains, causing frustration & anger for colonists
desiring to move west.
o Some colonists had already purchased land and had to leave, returning east of the Appalachian Mountains.
Key Events/Concepts Leading to the Revolutionary War (differentiate between political and economic issues)
 Mercantilism
o An economic system in which nations increase their wealth & power by obtaining gold/silver & by establishing a
favorable balance of trade for the Mother Country.
o Kept American colonies from freely trading in world markets & led to economic frustration.
 French and Indian War
 Proclamation of 1763
 Quartering Act
 Lack of Representation in Parliament – “No Taxation without Representation” became the battle cry of the American
 Stamp Act
o Required all legal and commercial documents to carry an official stamp showing a tax had been paid
o Colonists were angered & boycotted British goods resulting in the repeal of the act.
 Townshend Acts—enforced with writs of assistance (leads to current 4th amendment)
 Boston Massacre
(20) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The
student is expected to:
(20.C) analyze reasons for and the impact of selected examples of civil disobedience in U.S. history such as the Boston Tea
 Tea Act
 Boston Tea Party
o Americans were protesting the Tea Act in a nonviolent way; connect to civil disobedience
o Led to the Intolerable/Coercive Acts
o Civil disobedience - the process of defying codes of conduct within a community or ignoring the policies and government
of a state or nation when the civil laws are considered unjust. Examples of civil disobedience include nonviolent actions
such as boycotts, protests and refusal to pay taxes. Although the state of Texas says that the Boston Tea Party is an
example of civil disobedience, not all historians agree (which ironically corresponds to TEK 8.21)
 Intolerable/Coercive Acts
o Reaction of Parliament to the Boston Tea Party
o A series of laws to punish the Massachusetts colony & serve as a warning to other colonies.
o Closed the port of Boston causing other colonies to provide assistance; therefore uniting the colonies in their desire for
o Canceled government assemblies & applied heavy taxes until the cost of the dumped tea was repaid
 First Continental Congress
(4.C) explain the issues surrounding important events of the American Revolution, including declaring independence; … ;
fighting the battles of Lexington, Concord;
 Battles of Lexington and Concord
o First battles of the American Revolution
o Occurred in Massachusetts, not far from Boston
o attempt to store arms (connect to 2nd amendment)
 Second Continental Congress—adoption of the Declaration of Independence
(15) Government. The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, .
The student is expected to:
“All men are created equal”—establishes a guiding principle of American political philosophy although it will take centuries
for people of all races, ethnic groups, & genders to be included
Government’s duty is to protect people’s unalienable rights
Governments get their power from its citizens (popular sovereignty)
Governments which fail to protect citizens’ rights can be replaced
(15.C) identify colonial grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and explain how those grievances were
addressed in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights;
(19) Citizenship. The student understands the rights and responsibilities of citizens of the United States. The student is
expected to:
(19.A) define and give examples of unalienable rights;
(20.A) explain the role of significant individuals such as John Locke in the development of self-government in colonial America;
Declaration of Independence
 Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson was adopted on July 4, 1776
 Incorporates John Locke’s ideas of natural rights
 27 colonial grievances listed against King George III (stress connections to Constitution & Bill of Rights)
 Declared freedom from Great Britain
 Helped justify Revolutionary War—creates greater unity among colonists, leads way for foreign assistance
 Served as a model for other emerging nations
 Defines Unalienable Rights which include Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
 If the government is not protecting one’s rights, people can force the government to change or create a new government
 Sets forth the principles of equality and self-government
(20) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The
student is expected to:
(20B) Evaluate the contributions of the Founding Fathers as models of civic virtue
•The Founding Fathers practiced civic virtue by sacrificing their personal goals for the good of the country
• When they ended the Declaration with the lines “we pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor” for some it
was literal. Several donated their personal fortunes to pay for the Revolutionary War.
(4.B) explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution, including Abigail Adams, John Adams,
Wentworth Cheswell, Samuel Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, Benjamin Franklin, Crispus Attucks, King George III, Patrick Henry,
Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, and George Washington;
(23D) Analyze the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, & religious groups to our national identity
Key People
 John Adams – Founding Father who served on the committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence
 Samuel Adams
o Leader of the Sons of Liberty & organizer of the Committees of Correspondence
o British attempt to capture him led to the Battles of Lexington & Concord
 Mercy Otis Warren – writer who authored anti British plays, poems & essays supporting the idea of independence
 Benjamin Franklin – served on the committee which wrote the Declaration of Independence
 Crispus Attucks – African-American who was the 1st to die during the Boston Massacre
 King George III – king of England before & during the Revolutionary War
 Patrick Henry – member of the House of Burgesses who coined the phrase “Give me Liberty, or Give me Death”
 Thomas Jefferson – Primary author of the Declaration of Independence
 Thomas Paine – Wrote Common Sense, stirring colonial emotions and encouraging Americans to want to break away from
England (expose students to key excerpts)
George Washington Commander in Chief of the Continental (American) Army during the Revolutionary War
John Hancock—first signer of the Declaration of Independence; president of 2 nd Continental Congress
John Locke—Enlightenment thinker; concept of unalienable rights
Paul Revere—member of Sons of Liberty; warning related to Battle of Lexington & Concord
(23E) Identify the political, social and economic contributions of women to American Society
 Daughters of Liberty—organized boycotts of British goods
 Abigail Adams – Wife of John Adams; advocated for women’s rights (“remember the ladies”) see Ch. 1 p. 9 &textbook online
 Mercy Otis Warren—leader of the Daughters of Liberty who wrote pamphlets & poems urging separation and created anti
British plays
(10) Geography. The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and
present. The student is expected to:
(10.A) locate places and regions of importance in the United States during the …, 18th century, …;
Key Locations: Boston, Lexington, Concord, Philadelphia
(26B) Identify examples of American art, music, and literature that reflect society in different eras. (See below)
(29D) Identify points of view from the historical context surrounding an event and the frame of reference which influenced
the participants
 Bostonians Paying the Excise Man (cartoon p. 184)—British point of view
 Revere’s engraving of the Boston Massacre. image at- http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2008661777/ is an example
of bias and propaganda
 Midnight Ride of Paul Revere—poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
 Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull (painting commissioned in 1817, but depicts the presentation of the
Declaration of Independence to Congress in 1776)
(29A) differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases,
media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States;
Ex: Seal used in Stamp Act (p. 165) & Liberty Bell (p.195); Excerpts from Common Sense & The Crisis;
Declaration of Independence (excerpts from & painting of)
(29B) analyze information by sequencing
Ex: Sequence Causes of the Revolution
(29B) analyze information by identifying cause-and-effect relationships
Ex: British Rules & Colonial Reactions
(29B) analyze information by finding the main idea, summarizing
Ex: Excerpts from Thomas Paine’s writings
(29B) analyze information by making generalizations and predictions
Ex: Reasons for the Boston Tea Party &
(29C) organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines,
and maps
Ex: Join or Die Cartoon, Timeline of 1763-1776 (p.160), Engraving of Bloody Massacre on King Street,
Reports from Battles of Lexington & Concord from both viewpoints
(29E) support a point of view on a social studies issue or event What Do You Think: Should the Colonies Declare
(29F) identify bias in written, oral, and visual material;
Bloody Massacre on King Street
Bostonians Pay the Excise Man & Poster (p.184)
(29G) evaluate the validity of a source based on language, corroboration with other sources, and information about the author
Midnight Ride of Paul Revere
British & Patriot news reports on Lexington
Secondary sources on Battle of Lexington
(30A)use social studies terminology correctly
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