Geography 2: Final Exam Study Guide Winter 2015 Map of Latin America Brazil Mexico Chile Ecuador Honduras Paraguay Costa Rica Puerto Rico Guyana Suriname Cuba Colombia Argentina Peru Guatemala Cuba Haiti El Salvador Nicaragua Dom. Rep. Panama Uruguay French Guiana Jamaica Belize Venezuela Bolivia Migration & Colonialism—(Chapter 3 pp. 81-97 & Chapter 7 pp. 201-203) How has U.S. immigration policy shaped the flow of immigrants to the U.S.? What are Guest Worker Programs; where are they being used and why? How has colonialism influenced modern-day migration flows? What are the major events of the four stages of European colonialism? How are France & Algeria connected through history and modern migration patterns? How are the U.S. & Mexico connected through history and modern migration patterns? Globalization & Culture (Chapter 2 pp. 34-50 & Chapter 1 pp. 16-20) Globalization, what is it and what are the major factors that have encouraged it? What is culture? How are popular and folk cultures different and how are they connected? How do cultural practices diffuse? What are the components of spatial interaction? How has globalization impacted culture? What theories are used to explain the impacts of globalization on culture? Geography of Language (Chapter 4) How is language an important identifier? How is language tied to culture? How many languages are there and what are the dominant languages and language families? What theories exist to explain the origins and diffusion of Indo-European languages? What did Romance languages derive from? Where has language become the center of cultural conflict, cultural assertion or cultural unity? What are pidgin and creoles and how do they differ from code switching and loan words? Ethnicity & Race—Chapter 6 What are the historical roots for the concept of race? How does the evolution of Chinatown in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and in San Francisco, California reflect the links between race and place? How has racism shaped social geographies in South Africa? How have ethnicities shaped landscapes through interaction and settlement patterns? Explain the concept of environmental racism and environmental justice. Political Geographies—Chapter 7 How do the identities of ethnicity and nationality play a role in political units states, nations, and nation-states? How has nationalism led to Balkanization in several areas of Europe? Agriculture—Chapter 11 What were the first, second and third agricultural revolutions? Explain Carl Sauer’s theory on the beginnings of agriculture? Why has agriculture been important to human social development? What changes have agribusiness and industrial agriculture brought to food production? What are the different types of subsistence agriculture? What are the different types of commercial agriculture? Industry—Chapter 10 Discuss the origins of industry in the U.S. What factors have led to the post-Fordist model of industrial production? What have the impacts of restructuring been in the U.S. and in LDCs?