espirit - Davis School District

The postclassical period in western Europe began with the fall of Rome, period called
middle ages.
Three field system- only one third of the land was left unplanted.
Most people created new markets, growing trade
Economy help feed formal culture life
While merchant capitalism gained ground in western Europe economic values dominate
Western agriculture was not yet advanced technology but improved
Largest trade and banking was in Germany
France/low countries were capitalistic
Big merchants invested in ships
Luxury goods and spices from Asia
Mediterranean trade redeveloped, by Italian immigrants
Hanseatic league – Scandinavia grouped together to encourage trade
Trade and banking in the middle ages served as the origin of capitalism in western
Jacques Coeur was one of Europe’s best merchants, risks new forms of trade served as tax
officials until minting coins, he became finical advisors
Guilds – people in the same business or craft in a single city, stressed security and control,
limited membership, good workmanship
Summas- or highest power
Iron making and textile making
Vikings from Scandinavia disturbed life from Ireland to Sicily
Clovis a warrior chieftain, he converted to Christianity about 496 CE to gain greater
prestige over local rivals who were still pagan.
Carolingians- took over the monarchy which was based in northern Europe, Belgium and
western Germany
Charles Martel or Charles the hammer, was the founder of the Carolingians, responsible for
defeating the Muslims in the battle of tours in 732
Charlemagne or Charles the great, established empire in France and Germany, helped
restore some church based education
Holy roman emperors- merging Christian and classical claims
Vassals – greater lords protection and aid to lesser lords in return military service or some
William the conquer- extended the feudal system in his kingdom
Gregory VII (1073-1085) tried to purify the church and free it from inheritance by feudal
Bernard of Claivaus- powerful monk, he challenged Avelard
Thomas Aquinas- the Italian-born monk who taught at university of Paris, faith came fist for
him , through reason people could know natural order, moral law, and nature of God
Manorialism was the system of economic and political relations between landlords and
Feudalism the key political and military relationships in Western Europe.
Magna Carta – King John was forced to sign, it limited his power
Parliaments – feudal balance-> three estates, church, noble, and urban leaders.
The practice of appointment or investiture of bishops in Germany
Scholasticism – medieval philosophers approach was called because of its base in the
schools- silly debates such as the one about how many angels could dance on the head of
a pin.
Demonstrated an unusual confidence in logical orderliness of knowledge
Guilds played an important political role
Hundred years war – 14th century, long battle began, France and England-over territories
the English king controlled in France, over feudal rights versus the national states
Pope Urban II called for the first crusade in 1095
The importance of absolute faith in God
Rise of cities from saw the formation to develop spirituality and express the love of God.
Magical rituals involved much dancing and merriment
Pagan festivals
Western painters used religious subjects, like Christ’s birth
Medieval lit. and music reflected strong religious interests
Religion was the center piece of intellectuals , from science to romantic poetry
Viking intellectual activity declined
With Charlemagne intellectual activity began to slowly recover.
Believed in human reason and natural order
Fascination with logics lead intellectuals to a certain zeal
Peter Abelard- 12th century, in Paris he wrote a treaties called Yes and No, it showed logical
contradictions in a doctrine
Bernard was an intellectual of different sort, he stressed the importance of mystical union
with God
Christianity and Islam relied on the bible or the Quran
Combining rational philosophy and Christian faith was the dominant intellectual theme. In
postclassical west.
Motivated a growing interest in knowledge imported from the classical past and from the
Arab world. -> Arab rationist ibn rushd, western phosphor, theologian
Like philosophy, medieval art and architecture were intended to serve glory to God
Followed roman models, using rectangles or Romanesque
Gothic architects built soaring church spires and tall windows
Philosophy, law or political theory
Latin became the development of lit. in spoken lang. or vernaculars
Be wolf, the Song of Roland
Vernacular tongues like Canterbury poets or troubadours
Moldboard- a plow that allowed deeper turning in soil
3 field system