3. Crust - SharpSchool

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Chapter 6
Earth’s Changing Surface
1. How much of the Earth’s water is fresh water?
3%
2. Why is most of the fresh water not usable?
Most fresh water is bound up in glaciers and ice sheets.
3. Crust- the Earth’s rocky outer layer
4. Name six of the Earth’s landforms talked about in this chapter.
1. mountains
2. hills
3. mountain valleys
4. canyons
5. plateaus
6. mesas
7. river valleys
8. flood plains
5. Beach material varies in texture and shape. List the four different
types of textures.
1. rocky
2. pebbly
3. sandy
4. combination of all three
6. Coastal Plains- low-lying areas that slope gently from the mainland
toward the shore.
7. Sand Dunes- mounds or ridges of sand that the wind often forms
along coastlines.
8. From the shore to the ocean floor, what are the three parts of the
continental margin?
1. continental shelf
2. continental slope
3. continental rise
9. Seamounts- huge, steep-sided mountains rising from the ocean
floor.
10. Explain what a guyot is and how one is formed.
Guyots are seamounts with flat tops. They may originally
have risen above the surface, but were worn down over
time and covered over with water.
11. Topographic Map- a map that shows the shape of surface features
and their elevations, or heights above sea level.
12. Contour Lines- lines that connect points on the map that have the
same elevation.
13. Weathering- a destructive force, or a force that breaks down
something.
14. Name two types of weathering that can act on rocks.
mechanical and chemical
15. Mechanical Weathering- is the breaking of larger rocks into
smaller pieces of rock.
16. Describe the three ways that mechanical weathering may occur.
1. Water can trickle into the cracks of rocks and freeze,
breaking the rocks apart.
2. Wind or rushing water hitting rocks can cause the rocks
to weaken and crack or crumble.
3. Plant roots can break rocks as the plant grows.
17. Chemical Weathering- is when rocks change into other materials.
18. Sediment- the smaller pieces of rock that are broken down from
larger rocks by mechanical weathering.
19. Why do many caverns form in limestone?
The minerals in limestone are easily dissolved by acids.
20. Erosion- the carrying away of sediments by moving water, wind, or
moving ice.
21. Describe one way that erosion wears down the Earth’s surface.
Glaciers carve out hollows in the land.
22. Landslides- large movements of land that tumble down a steep
slope.
23. Name three examples of landslides.
1. mudslides
2. rock falls
3. avalanches
24. How does a landslide occur?
Through erosion or disturbance and gravity
25. Deposition-the dropping, or releasing, of sediments that have been
moved from one place to another.
26. Alluvial Fan- a fan-shaped landmass that forms after a river rushes
down a steep slope, then slows over a flat plain.
27. Delta- a low plain that forms where a river enters an ocean.
28. What process created the Himalaya Mountains?
They formed when huge sections of the Earth’s crust pushed
into each other and the pressure caused the crust to fold.
29. How do glaciers deposit sediment?
They build up sediment when they move and release it
when they melt.
30. Eskers- the winding ridges that melting glaciers deposit sand and
gravel in.
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