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1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
1.
WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING
1.01
WATERPROOFING OF CONCRETE
A mortar or concrete is considered impermeable when it
does not permit passage or flow of water through its
pores or voids.
The absorption of a mortar or concrete is the property
of drawing in or engrossing water into its pores or
voids by capillary action or otherwise.
If the pores or voids between particles are sufficiently
large and connected from surface to surface of the wall,
the concrete will be permeable to water.
If the pores or voids are very minute, but connect with
one another, theoretically they may act as capillary
tubes, but the capillary forces will tend to hold the water
and prevent the passage of water.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
1.
WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING
1.01
WATERPROOFING OF CONCRETE
The various methods of waterproofing concrete may be
classified as follows :
a.
Impermeability through a Dense Concrete
Accurate grading and proportioning of the concrete
materials in order to secure a concrete so dense as to
be waterproof.
b.
Waterproofing Coatings and Washes
Applying waterproof coatings or washes to the
concrete after it is on place.
c.
Integral Waterproofing Compounds
Mixing foreign substances with the concrete.
d.
Membrane Waterproofing
Surrounding the concrete with layers of waterproofing
materials.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
1.
WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING
1.01
WATERPROOFING OF CONCRETE
a.
Impermeability through a Dense Concrete
Portland cement mortar and concrete can be made
practically waterproof or impermeable without the
use of any integral waterproofing materials; but in
order to obtain such impermeable concrete or
mortar considerable care should be exercised in
selecting good materials :
• Well-graded sands containing considerable
graded fine material are preferable for making
impermeable concrete, or fine material in the
form of hydrated lime, finely ground clay, or an
additional quantity of cement will be of value.
• The consistency of the concrete mixture should
be wet enough so that it can be puddled, mixture
should be well spaded against the forms to avoid
the formation of pockets on the surface.
• Care should be taken not to over trowel which
may cause erasing the coating will be effective.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
1.
WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING
1.01
WATERPROOFING OF CONCRETE
Permeable concrete results from :
•
Defective workmanship, resulting from improper
proportioning, lack of thorough mixing, separation
of the coarse aggregate from fine aggregate in
transporting and placing the mixed concrete, lack
of density through insufficient tamping or spading,
improper bonding of work joints .
•
The use of imperfectly sized and graded
aggregates.
•
The use of excessive water, causing shrinkage
cracks and formation of laitance-seams .
•
The lack of proper provision to take care of
expansion and contraction, causing subsequent
cracking .
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
1.
WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING
1.01
WATERPROOFING OF CONCRETE
b.
Waterproofing Coatings and Washes
The materials employed as surface coatings may be
classified as follows :
 Alum and soap mixtures applied in alternate
mixtures (known as the Sylvester process),
which penetrates the pores of the concrete
forming insoluble compounds due to chemical
action between the alum and soap solutions,
and these compounds prevents percolation.
- use in proportions of ¾ gal. of soap to 1 gal. of
water, and 2oz. of alum to 1 gal. of water, both
substances to be perfectly dissolved in water
before using.
- should be applied with a soft, flat brush (one
for each solution), the soap boiling hot and the
alum solution at 60 to 70F.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
1.
WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING
1.01
WATERPROOFING OF CONCRETE
b.
Waterproofing Coatings and Washes
 Alum, lye and cement washes .
 Cement grout, with or without the addition of
water-repellants.
 Paraffin and other
mineral bases, applied
cold in solution or
prepared in melted.
 Miscellaneous
materials of unknown
composition sold under
various trade names.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
1.
WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING
1.01
WATERPROOFING OF CONCRETE
b.
Waterproofing Coatings and Washes
 Specially prepared bituminous products, e.g.,
“FLINT-KOTE”, “JOHN-MANSVILLE”, etc
 Asphalt emulsions - Generally called Asphalt
Base Clay Emulsions, minute asphalt particles
dispersed in water and maintained in suspension
(until applied) by a mineral colloid emulsifying
agent. When the water vehicle evaporates,
resilient reinforced weatherproof film remains
which resist the passage of free water but allows
movement of water vapor through the film and are
classed as breathing films.
 Cutback Asphalts - composed of a variety of
products from thin liquids to heavy paste, often
one or more asphalts dissolved in solvent are
filled with minerals and fibers to meet
requirements of different coating uses and
provide tough, durable films resistant to the
passage of water vapor.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
1.
WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING
1.01
WATERPROOFING OF CONCRETE
c.
Integral Waterproofing Compounds
These are manufactured and sold under various
trade names, and are available in powder or liquid
form, e.g.:
“SAHARA”
“POZOLITH”
“AQUELLA”
Truscon “ZILICON”
“ANTI-HYDRO”
The addition of the integral waterproofing
compounds will not, however, compensate for lean
mixtures, nor for poor materials, nor for poor
workmanship in the fabrication of concrete
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
1.
WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING
1.01
WATERPROOFING OF CONCRETE
d.
Membrane Waterproofing
Layers of waterproofing materials used in this
method range from ordinary tar paper laid with
coal-tar pitch to asbestos or asphalted felt laid in
asphalt.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
2.
PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01
TYPES OF ROOFING
a.
Sheet Metal Roofing
• Galvanized Iron Roofing – various corrugations
and rib sections.
• Aluminum Roofing – various corrugation and
rib sections
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
b.
Plastic Roofing
• Plastic – various corrugation and rib sections
• Polycarbonate – corrugated and flat sheets
c.
Tile Roofing
• Clay
• Concrete
d.
Shingles
• Wood
• Tar
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
2.
PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01
TYPES OF ROOFING
a.
Sheet Metal Roofing
• Galvanized Iron Roofing
 Corrugated galvanized iron sheets are
manufactured in lengths of 5 to 12 ft. in 1 ft.
increments, the 8 ft length being the most
commonly used.
 Width of sheets is 32”. Each sheet has 10
corrugations with a pitch of 3”.
 For roofing, Ga. 26 is generally specified, Ga.
24 is preferred.
 Galvanized iron sheets are also sometimes
used as siding for industrial buildings. When
used as siding, courses shall be lapped at
least 6”.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
1.02 Vapor
Barriers
1.03 Sawing Methods
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
2.
PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01
TYPES OF ROOFING
a.
Sheet Metal Roofing
• Aluminum Roofing
 Corrugated aluminum is rigidized sheet
fabricated of special aluminum alloys
specifically developed for this purpose.
 Has a high insulating value and is about onesixth lighter than similar materials.
 Is silvery in color, strong and does not stain
adjoining materials.
 It reacts, however, with dissimilar materials,
lead-base paints green or damp wood, certain
wood preservatives, lime mortar, concrete, and
other masonry materials and must be insulated
from contact with these materials .
 Width of sheets are 32-5/8”, 32”, 31-1/2”, 311/8”, and 30-5/8”; lengths are from 6 to 12 ft. in
1 ft. increments. Number of corrugations for
32” sheets and wider is 12; sheets of narrower
width have 10 corrugations.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
1.02 Vapor
Barriers
1.03 Sawing Methods
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
2.
PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01
TYPES OF ROOFING
b.
Plastic Roofing
• Corrugated or Ribbed Roofing
 Corrugated sheets are manufactured in in
same widths and lengths as Metal Sheet
Roofing.
 Metal reinforced plastic roofing is available.
 Ideally used in sites of high salinity levels.
• Sheet Roofing
 Polycarbonate Sheets.
 Ideally used in greenhouses, patios, outdoor
sheds, and skylights.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
1.02 Vapor
Barriers
1.03 Sawing Methods
2.
PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01
TYPES OF ROOFING
c.
Tile Roofing
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
• Clay Tiles
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
• Concrete Tiles
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
1.02 Vapor
Barriers
1.03 Sawing Methods
2.
PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01
TYPES OF ROOFING
d.
Shingles
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
• Wood Shingles
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
• Tar/Asphalt Shingles
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
1.02 Vapor
Barriers
1.03 Sawing Methods
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
3.
JOINT SEALANTS
3.01
TYPES OF JOINT SEALANTS
a.
Bituminuous Cement
is a black substance available in solid, semi-solid,
or liquid states at normal temperatures.
composed of mixed indeterminate hydrocarbons,
appreciably soluble only in carbon disulfide or
other volatile liquid hydrocarbon.
used for sealing built-up roofing, and joints and
cracks of concrete pavements.
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
1.02 Vapor
Barriers
1.03 Sawing Methods
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
3.
JOINT SEALANTS
3.01
TYPES OF JOINT SEALANTS
b.
Silicone Sealant
1. WATERPROOFING &
DAMPPROOFING
1.01 Waterproofing
of Concrete
2. PREFORMED ROOFING
2.01 Types of Roofing
3. JOINT SEALANTS
3.01 Types of Joint
Sealants
End of
Div 07 THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION
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